typewit 1.9.0

type-witness-based abstractions, mostly for emulating polymorphism in const fns

Rust crates-io api-docs

This crate provides abstractions for creating type witnesses.

The inciting motivation for this crate is emulating trait polymorphism in const fn (as of 2023-10-01, it's not possible to call trait methods in const contexts on stable).

What are type witnesses

Type witnesses are enums that allow coercing between a type parameter and a range of possible types (one per variant).

The simplest type witness is TypeEq<L, R>, which only allows coercing between L and R.

Most type witnesses are enums with TypeEq fields, which can coerce between a type parameter and as many types as there are variants.


Polymorphic function

This demonstrates how one can write a return-type-polymorphic const fn (as of 2023-10-01, trait methods can't be called in const fns on stable)

use typewit::{MakeTypeWitness, TypeEq};

assert_eq!(returnal::<u8>(), 3);
assert_eq!(returnal::<&str>(), "hello");

const fn returnal<'a, R>() -> R
    RetWitness<'a, R>: MakeTypeWitness,
    match MakeTypeWitness::MAKE {
        RetWitness::U8(te) => {
            // `te` (a `TypeEq<R, u8>`) allows coercing between `R` and `u8`,
            // because `TypeEq` is a value-level proof that both types are the same.
            // `te.to_left(...)` goes from `u8` to `R`.
        RetWitness::Str(te) => {
            // `te` is a `TypeEq<R, &'a str>`
            // `te.to_left(...)` goes from `&'a str` to `R`.

// This macro declares a type witness enum
typewit::simple_type_witness! {
    // Declares `enum RetWitness<'a, __Wit>` 
    // (the `__Wit` type parameter is implicitly added after all generics)
    enum RetWitness<'a> {
        // This variant requires `__Wit == u8`
        U8 = u8,
        // This variant requires `__Wit == &'a str`
        Str = &'a str,

Indexing polymorphism

This function demonstrates const fn polymorphism and projecting TypeEq by implementing TypeFn.

(this example requires Rust 1.71.0, because it uses <[T]>::split_at in a const context.

use std::ops::Range;

use typewit::{HasTypeWitness, TypeEq};

fn main() {
    let array = [3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89];

    assert_eq!(index(&array, 0), &3);
    assert_eq!(index(&array, 3), &13);
    assert_eq!(index(&array, 0..4), [3, 5, 8, 13]);
    assert_eq!(index(&array, 3..5), [13, 21]);

const fn index<T, I>(slice: &[T], idx: I) -> &SliceIndexRet<I, T>
    I: SliceIndex<T>,
    // `I::WITNESS` is `<I as HasTypeWitness<IndexWitness<I>>>::WITNESS`,
    match I::WITNESS {
        IndexWitness::Usize(arg_te) => {
            // `arg_te` (a `TypeEq<I, usize>`) allows coercing between `I` and `usize`,
            // because `TypeEq` is a value-level proof that both types are the same.
            let idx: usize = arg_te.to_right(idx);

            // using the `TypeFn` impl for `FnSliceIndexRet<T>` to 
            // map `TypeEq<I, usize>` 
            // to  `TypeEq<SliceIndexRet<I, T>, SliceIndexRet<usize, T>>`
                // converts`TypeEq<SliceIndexRet<I, T>, T>` 
                //      to `TypeEq<&SliceIndexRet<I, T>, &T>`
        IndexWitness::Range(arg_te) => {
            let range: Range<usize> = arg_te.to_right(idx);
            let ret: &[T] = slice_range(slice, range);

// This macro declares a type witness enum
typewit::simple_type_witness! {
    // Declares `enum IndexWitness<__Wit>` 
    // (the `__Wit` type parameter is implicitly added after all generics)
    enum IndexWitness {
        // This variant requires `__Wit == usize`
        Usize = usize,
        // This variant requires `__Wit == Range<usize>`
        Range = Range<usize>,

/// Trait for all types that can be used as slice indices
/// The `HasTypeWitness` supertrait allows getting a `IndexWitness<Self>`
/// with its `WITNESS` associated constant.
trait SliceIndex<T>: HasTypeWitness<IndexWitness<Self>> + Sized {
    type Returns: ?Sized;
impl<T> SliceIndex<T> for usize {
    type Returns = T;
impl<T> SliceIndex<T> for Range<usize> {
    type Returns = [T];

type SliceIndexRet<I, T> = <I as SliceIndex<T>>::Returns;

// Declares `struct FnSliceIndexRet<T>`
// a type-level function (TypeFn implementor) from `I` to `SliceIndexRet<I, T>`
typewit::type_fn! {
    struct FnSliceIndexRet<T>;

    impl<I: SliceIndex<T>> I => SliceIndexRet<I, T>

const fn slice_range<T>(slice: &[T], range: Range<usize>) -> &[T] {
    let suffix = slice.split_at(range.start).1;
    suffix.split_at(range.end - range.start).0

When the wrong type is passed for the index, the compile-time error is the same as with normal generic functions:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `RangeFull: SliceIndex<{integer}>` is not satisfied
  --> src/main.rs:43:30
13 |     assert_eq!(index(&array, ..), [13, 21]);
   |                -----         ^^ the trait `SliceIndex<{integer}>` is not implemented for `RangeFull`
   |                |
   |                required by a bound introduced by this call
   = help: the following other types implement trait `SliceIndex<T>`:

Downcasting const generic type

This example demonstrates "downcasting" from a type with a const parameter to a concrete instance of that type.

use typewit::{const_marker::Usize, TypeCmp, TypeEq};

assert_eq!(*mutate(&mut Arr([])), Arr([]));
assert_eq!(*mutate(&mut Arr([1])), Arr([1]));
assert_eq!(*mutate(&mut Arr([1, 2])), Arr([1, 2]));
assert_eq!(*mutate(&mut Arr([1, 2, 3])), Arr([1, 3, 6])); // this is different!
assert_eq!(*mutate(&mut Arr([1, 2, 3, 4])), Arr([1, 2, 3, 4])); 

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq)]
struct Arr<const N: usize>([u8; N]);

fn mutate<const N: usize>(arr: &mut Arr<N>) -> &mut Arr<N> {
    if let TypeCmp::Eq(te) =  Usize::<N>.equals(Usize::<3>) {
        let tem = te // `te` is a `TypeEq<Usize<N>, Usize<3>>`
            .project::<GArr>() // returns `TypeEq<Arr<N>, Arr<3>>`
            .in_mut(); // returns `TypeEq<&mut Arr<N>, &mut Arr<3>>`

        // `tem.to_right(arr)` downcasts `arr` to `&mut Arr<3>`


fn tetra_sum(arr: &mut Arr<3>) {
    arr.0[1] += arr.0[0];
    arr.0[2] += arr.0[1];

// Declares `struct GArr`
// a type-level function (TypeFn implementor) from `Usize<N>` to `Arr<N>`
    struct GArr;

    impl<const N: usize> Usize<N> => Arr<N>


Using a type witness to help encode a type-level enum, and to match on that type-level enum inside of a function.

The type-level enum is used to track the initialization of fields in a builder.

This example requires Rust 1.65.0, because it uses Generic Associated Types.

use typewit::HasTypeWitness;

fn main() {
    // all default fields
        Struct{foo: "default value".into(), bar: vec![3, 5, 8]},

    // defaulted bar field
        Struct{foo: "hello".into(), bar: vec![3, 5, 8]},

    // defaulted foo field
        StructBuilder::new().bar([13, 21, 34]).build(), 
        Struct{foo: "default value".into(), bar: vec![13, 21, 34]},

    // all initialized fields
        StructBuilder::new().foo("world").bar([55, 89]).build(), 
        Struct{foo: "world".into(), bar: vec![55, 89]},

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq, Eq)]
struct Struct {
    foo: String,
    bar: Vec<u32>,

struct StructBuilder<FooInit: InitState, BarInit: InitState> {
    // If `FooInit` is `Uninit`, then this field is a `()`
    // If `FooInit` is `Init`, then this field is a `String`
    foo: BuilderField<FooInit, String>,

    // If `BarInit` is `Uninit`, then this field is a `()`
    // If `BarInit` is `Init`, then this field is a `Vec<u32>`
    bar: BuilderField<BarInit, Vec<u32>>,

impl StructBuilder<Uninit, Uninit> {
    pub const fn new() -> Self {
        Self {
            foo: (),
            bar: (),

impl<FooInit: InitState, BarInit: InitState> StructBuilder<FooInit, BarInit> {
    /// Sets the `foo` field
    pub fn foo(self, foo: impl Into<String>) -> StructBuilder<Init, BarInit> {
        StructBuilder {
            foo: foo.into(),
            bar: self.bar,

    /// Sets the `bar` field
    pub fn bar(self, bar: impl Into<Vec<u32>>) -> StructBuilder<FooInit, Init> {
        StructBuilder {
            foo: self.foo,
            bar: bar.into(),

    /// Builds `Struct`, 
    /// providing default values for fields that haven't been set.
    pub fn build(self) -> Struct {
        Struct {
            foo: init_or_else::<FooInit, _, _>(self.foo, || "default value".to_string()),
            bar: init_or_else::<BarInit, _, _>(self.bar, || vec![3, 5, 8]),

// Emulates a type-level `enum InitState { Init, Uninit }`
trait InitState: Sized + HasTypeWitness<InitWit<Self>> {
    // How a builder represents an initialized/uninitialized field.
    // If `Self` is `Uninit`, then this is `()`.
    // If `Self` is `Init`, then this is `T`.
    type BuilderField<T>;

// If `I` is `Uninit`, then this evaluates to `()`
// If `I` is `Init`, then this evaluates to `T`
type BuilderField<I, T> = <I as InitState>::BuilderField::<T>;

/// Gets `T` out of `maybe_init` if it's actually initialized,
/// otherwise returns `else_()`.
fn init_or_else<I, T, F>(maybe_init: BuilderField<I, T>, else_: F) -> T
    I: InitState,
    F: FnOnce() -> T
    typewit::type_fn! {
        // Declares the `HelperFn` type-level function (TypeFn implementor)
        // from `I` to `BuilderField<I, T>`
        struct HelperFn<T>;
        impl<I: InitState> I => BuilderField<I, T>

    // matching on the type-level `InitState` enum by using `InitWit`.
    // `WITNESS` comes from the `HasTypeWitness` trait
    match I::WITNESS {
        // `te: TypeEq<FooInit, Init>`
        InitWit::InitW(te) => {
            te.map(HelperFn::NEW) //: TypeEq<BuilderField<I, T>, T>
        InitWit::UninitW(_) => else_(),

// Emulates a type-level `InitState::Init` variant.
// Marks a field as initialized.
enum Init {}

impl InitState for Init {
    type BuilderField<T> = T;

// Emulates a type-level `InitState::Uninit` variant.
// Marks a field as uninitialized.
enum Uninit {}

impl InitState for Uninit {
    type BuilderField<T> = ();

typewit::simple_type_witness! {
    // Declares `enum InitWit<__Wit>`, a type witness.
    // (the `__Wit` type parameter is implicitly added after all generics)
    enum InitWit {
        // This variant requires `__Wit == Init`
        InitW = Init,
        // This variant requires `__Wit == Uninit`
        UninitW = Uninit,

Cargo features

These are the features of this crate.


These features are enabled by default:

  • "proc_macros": uses proc macros to improve compile-errors involving macro-generated impls.

Rust-versions and standard crates

These features enable items that have a minimum Rust version:

These features enable items that require a non-core standard crate:

  • "alloc": enable items that use anything from the standard alloc crate.

Nightly features

These features require the nightly Rust compiler:

  • "adt_const_marker": enables the "rust_stable" crate feature, and marker types in the const_marker module that have non-primitive const parameters.

  • "nightly_mut_refs": Enables the "rust_stable" and "mut_refs" crate features, and turns functions that use mutable references into const fns.

Future-Rust features

These features currently require future compiler versions:

  • "mut_refs": turns functions that take mutable references into const fns. note: as of October 2023, this crate feature requires a stable compiler from the future.

No-std support

typewit is #![no_std], it can be used anywhere Rust can be used.

You need to enable the "alloc" feature to enable items that use anything from the standard alloc crate.

Minimum Supported Rust Version

typewit supports Rust 1.57.0.

Features that require newer versions of Rust, or the nightly compiler, need to be explicitly enabled with crate features.