sled 0.14.1

a flash-sympathetic persistent lock-free B+ tree, pagecache, and log


Build Status documentation

A modern embedded database.

extern crate sled;

let tree = sled::Config::default()
  .cache_capacity(1e9 as usize)      // 1gb of cache
  .use_compression(true)             // requires the zstd build feature
  .flush_every_ms(Some(1000))         // flush IO buffers every second
  .snapshot_after_ops(100_000)       // snapshot the pagetable every 100k ops

// set and get
tree.set(k, v1);
assert_eq!(tree.get(&k), Some(v1));

// compare and swap
tree.cas(k, Some(v1), Some(v2));

// scans
let mut iter = tree.scan(b"a non-present key < k!");
assert_eq!(, Some((k, v2)));
assert_eq!(, None);

// deletion


  • fully atomic, supports CAS
  • cpu-scalable lock-free implementation
  • SSD-optimized log-structured storage
  • configurable zstd compression (use the zstd feature)
  • designed to beat LSM trees for reads and traditional B+ trees for writes


  • Quite young, there are lots of fuzz tests but don't bet a billion dollar business on it yet!
  • The C API is likely to change rapidly
  • Log cleaning is currently only implemented for linux via fallocate!
  • Has not yet received much attention for performance tuning, it has an extremely high theoretical performance but there is a bit of tuning to get there. Currently only around 200k operations per second with certain contrived workloads. This will be improving soon!

contribution welcome!

  • Want to help advance the state of the art in open source embedded databases? Check out!


  1. beat LSM's on read performance and traditional B+ trees on write performance.
  2. don't use so much electricity. our data structures should play to modern hardware's strengths.
  3. don't surprise users with performance traps.
  4. bring reliability techniques from academia into real-world practice.


Lock-free tree on a lock-free pagecache on a lock-free log. The pagecache scatters partial page fragments across the log, rather than rewriting entire pages at a time as B+ trees for spinning disks historically have. On page reads, we concurrently scatter-gather reads across the log to materialize the page from its fragments.

The system is largely inspired by the Deuteronomy architecture, and aims to implement the best features from RocksDB as well.

The LockFreeLog and PageCache are usable on their own for implementing your own high-performance stateful systems!