Struct wasmtime::Store[][src]

pub struct Store<T> { /* fields omitted */ }
Expand description

A Store is a collection of WebAssembly instances and host-defined state.

All WebAssembly instances and items will be attached to and refer to a Store. For example instances, functions, globals, and tables are all attached to a Store. Instances are created by instantiating a Module within a Store.

A Store is intended to be a short-lived object in a program. No form of GC is implemented at this time so once an instance is created within a Store it will not be deallocated until the Store itself is dropped. This makes Store unsuitable for creating an unbounded number of instances in it because Store will never release this memory. It’s recommended to have a Store correspond roughly to the lifetime of a “main instance” that an embedding is interested in executing.

Type parameter T

Each Store has a type parameter T associated with it. This T represents state defined by the host. This state will be accessible through the Caller type that host-defined functions get access to. This T is suitable for storing Store-specific information which imported functions may want access to.

The data T can be accessed through methods like Store::data and Store::data_mut.

Stores, contexts, oh my

Most methods in Wasmtime take something of the form AsContext or AsContextMut as the first argument. These two traits allow ergonomically passing in the context you currently have to any method. The primary two sources of contexts are:

  • Store<T>
  • Caller<'_, T>

corresponding to what you create and what you have access to in a host function. You can also explicitly acquire a StoreContext or StoreContextMut and pass that around as well.

Note that all methods on Store are mirrored onto StoreContext, StoreContextMut, and Caller. This way no matter what form of context you have you can call various methods, create objects, etc.

Stores and Default

You can create a store with default configuration settings using Store::default(). This will create a brand new Engine with default configuration (see Config for more information).


Creates a new Store to be associated with the given Engine and data provided.

The created Store will place no additional limits on the size of linear memories or tables at runtime. Linear memories and tables will be allowed to grow to any upper limit specified in their definitions. The store will limit the number of instances, linear memories, and tables created to 10,000. This can be overridden with the Store::limiter configuration method.

Access the underlying data owned by this Store.

Access the underlying data owned by this Store.

Consumes this Store, destroying it, and returns the underlying data.

Configures the ResourceLimiter used to limit resource creation within this Store.

Note that this limiter is only used to limit the creation/growth of resources in the future, this does not retroactively attempt to apply limits to the Store.

Configure a function that runs on calls and returns between WebAssembly and host code.

The function is passed a CallHook argument, which indicates which state transition the VM is making.

This function may return a Trap. If a trap is returned when an import was called, it is immediately raised as-if the host import had returned the trap. If a trap is returned after wasm returns to the host then the wasm function’s result is ignored and this trap is returned instead.

After this function returns a trap, it may be called for subsequent returns to host or wasm code as the trap propogates to the root call.

Returns the Engine that this store is associated with.

Creates an InterruptHandle which can be used to interrupt the execution of instances within this Store.

An InterruptHandle handle is a mechanism of ensuring that guest code doesn’t execute for too long. For example it’s used to prevent wasm programs for executing infinitely in infinite loops or recursive call chains.

The InterruptHandle type is sendable to other threads so you can interact with it even while the thread with this Store is executing wasm code.

There’s one method on an interrupt handle: InterruptHandle::interrupt. This method is used to generate an interrupt and cause wasm code to exit “soon”.

When are interrupts delivered?

The term “interrupt” here refers to one of two different behaviors that are interrupted in wasm:

  • The head of every loop in wasm has a check to see if it’s interrupted.
  • The prologue of every function has a check to see if it’s interrupted.

This interrupt mechanism makes no attempt to signal interrupts to native code. For example if a host function is blocked, then sending an interrupt will not interrupt that operation.

Interrupts are consumed as soon as possible when wasm itself starts executing. This means that if you interrupt wasm code then it basically guarantees that the next time wasm is executing on the target thread it will return quickly (either normally if it were already in the process of returning or with a trap from the interrupt). Once an interrupt trap is generated then an interrupt is consumed, and further execution will not be interrupted (unless another interrupt is set).

When implementing interrupts you’ll want to ensure that the delivery of interrupts into wasm code is also handled in your host imports and functionality. Host functions need to either execute for bounded amounts of time or you’ll need to arrange for them to be interrupted as well.

Return Value

This function returns a Result since interrupts are not always enabled. Interrupts are enabled via the Config::interruptable method, and if this store’s Config hasn’t been configured to enable interrupts then an error is returned.


// Enable interruptable code via `Config` and then create an interrupt
// handle which we'll use later to interrupt running code.
let engine = Engine::new(Config::new().interruptable(true))?;
let mut store = Store::new(&engine, ());
let interrupt_handle = store.interrupt_handle()?;

// Compile and instantiate a small example with an infinite loop.
let module = Module::new(&engine, r#"
    (func (export "run") (loop br 0))
let instance = Instance::new(&mut store, &module, &[])?;
let run = instance.get_typed_func::<(), (), _>(&mut store, "run")?;

// Spin up a thread to send us an interrupt in a second
std::thread::spawn(move || {

let trap = store, ()).unwrap_err();
assert!(trap.to_string().contains("wasm trap: interrupt"));

Perform garbage collection of ExternRefs.

Note that it is not required to actively call this function. GC will automatically happen when internal buffers fill up. This is provided if fine-grained control over the GC is desired.

Returns the amount of fuel consumed by this store’s execution so far.

If fuel consumption is not enabled via Config::consume_fuel then this function will return None. Also note that fuel, if enabled, must be originally configured via Store::add_fuel.

Adds fuel to this Store for wasm to consume while executing.

For this method to work fuel consumption must be enabled via Config::consume_fuel. By default a Store starts with 0 fuel for wasm to execute with (meaning it will immediately trap). This function must be called for the store to have some fuel to allow WebAssembly to execute.

Most WebAssembly instructions consume 1 unit of fuel. Some instructions, such as nop, drop, block, and loop, consume 0 units, as any execution cost associated with them involves other instructions which do consume fuel.

Note that at this time when fuel is entirely consumed it will cause wasm to trap. More usages of fuel are planned for the future.


This function will panic if the store’s Config did not have fuel consumption enabled.

Synthetically consumes fuel from this Store.

For this method to work fuel consumption must be enabled via Config::consume_fuel.

WebAssembly execution will automatically consume fuel but if so desired the embedder can also consume fuel manually to account for relative costs of host functions, for example.

This function will attempt to consume fuel units of fuel from within this store. If the remaining amount of fuel allows this then Ok(N) is returned where N is the amount of remaining fuel. Otherwise an error is returned and no fuel is consumed.


This function will return an either either if fuel consumption via Config is disabled or if fuel exceeds the amount of remaining fuel within this store.

Configures a Store to generate a Trap whenever it runs out of fuel.

When a Store is configured to consume fuel with Config::consume_fuel this method will configure what happens when fuel runs out. Specifically a WebAssembly trap will be raised and the current execution of WebAssembly will be aborted.

This is the default behavior for running out of fuel.

Configures a Store to yield execution of async WebAssembly code periodically.

When a Store is configured to consume fuel with Config::consume_fuel this method will configure what happens when fuel runs out. Specifically executing WebAssembly will be suspended and control will be yielded back to the caller. This is only suitable with use of a store associated with an async config because only then are futures used and yields are possible.

The purpose of this behavior is to ensure that futures which represent execution of WebAssembly do not execute too long inside their Future::poll method. This allows for some form of cooperative multitasking where WebAssembly will voluntarily yield control periodically (based on fuel consumption) back to the running thread.

Note that futures returned by this crate will automatically flag themselves to get re-polled if a yield happens. This means that WebAssembly will continue to execute, just after giving the host an opportunity to do something else.

The fuel_to_inject parameter indicates how much fuel should be automatically re-injected after fuel runs out. This is how much fuel will be consumed between yields of an async future.

The injection_count parameter indicates how many times this fuel will be injected. Multiplying the two parameters is the total amount of fuel this store is allowed before wasm traps.


This method will panic if it is not called on a store associated with an async config.

Trait Implementations

The host information associated with the Store, aka the T in Store<T>. Read more

Returns the store context that this type provides access to.

Returns the store context that this type provides access to.

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more

Executes the destructor for this type. Read more

The signal handler must be async-signal-safe. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

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Initializes a with the given initializer. Read more

Dereferences the given pointer. Read more

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The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

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The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.