Crate svd2rust [] [src]

Peripheral API generator from CMSIS-SVD files

A SVD file is an XML file that describes the hardware features of a microcontroller. In particular, it list all the peripherals available to the device, where the registers associated to each device are located in memory and what's the function of each register.

svd2rust is a command line tool that transforms SVD files into crates that expose a type safe API to access the peripherals of the device.


$ cargo install svd2rust


$ svd2rust -i STM32F30x.svd | rustfmt | tee src/
//! Peripheral access API for STM32F30X microcontrollers (generated using svd2rust v0.4.0)


extern crate cortex_m;
extern crate vcell;

use cortex_m::peripheral::Peripheral;

/// Interrupts
pub mod interrupt {

/// General-purpose I/Os
pub const GPIOA: Peripheral<Gpioa> = unsafe { Peripheral::new(1207959552) };

/// General-purpose I/Os
pub mod gpioa {
    pub struct RegisterBlock {
        /// GPIO port mode register
        pub moder: Moder,

pub use gpioa::RegisterBlock as Gpioa;

/// General-purpose I/Os
pub const GPIOB: Peripheral<Gpiob> = unsafe { Peripheral::new(1207960576) };

/// General-purpose I/Os
pub mod gpiob {

pub use gpiob::RegisterBlock as Gpiob;

pub const GPIOC: Peripheral<Gpioc> = unsafe { Peripheral::new(1207961600) };

/// Register block
pub type Gpioc = Gpiob;


The generated API depends on:

Peripheral API

In the root of the generated API, you'll find all the device peripherals as constant structs. You can access the register block behind the peripheral using either of these two methods:

  • get() for unsafe, unsynchronized access to the peripheral, or

  • borrow() which grants you exclusive access to the peripheral but can only be used within a critical section (interrupt::free).

The register block is basically a struct where each field represents a register.

/// Inter-integrated circuit
pub mod i2C1
    /// Register block
    pub struct RegisterBlock {
        /// 0x00 - Control register 1
        pub cr1: Cr1,
        /// 0x04 - Control register 2
        pub cr2: Cr2,
        /// 0x08 - Own address register 1
        pub oar1: Oar1,
        /// 0x0c - Own address register 2
        pub oar2: Oar2,
        /// 0x10 - Timing register
        pub timingr: Timingr,
        /// Status register 1
        pub timeoutr: Timeoutr,
        /// Interrupt and Status register
        pub isr: Isr,
        /// 0x1c - Interrupt clear register
        pub icr: Icr,
        /// 0x20 - PEC register
        pub pecr: Pecr,
        /// 0x24 - Receive data register
        pub rxdr: Rxdr,
        /// 0x28 - Transmit data register
        pub txdr: Txdr,

read / modify / write API

Each register in the register block, e.g. the cr1 field in the I2c struct, exposes a combination of the read, modify and write methods. Which methods exposes each register depends on whether the register is read-only, read-write or write-only:

  • read-only registers only expose the read method.
  • write-only registers only expose the write method.
  • read-write registers expose all the methods: read, modify and write.

This is signature of each of these methods:

(using I2C's CR2 register as an example)

impl Cr2 {
    /// Modifies the contents of the register
    pub fn modify<F>(&mut self, f: F)
        for<'w> F: FnOnce(&R, &'w mut W) -> &'w mut W

    /// Reads the contents of the register
    pub fn read(&self) -> R { .. }

    /// Writes to the register
    pub fn write<F>(&mut self, f: F)
        F: FnOnce(&mut W) -> &mut W,

The read method "reads" the register using a single, volatile LDR instruction and returns a proxy R struct that allows access to only the readable bits (i.e. not to the reserved or write-only bits) of the CR2 register:

/// Value read from the register
impl R {
    /// Bit 0 - Slave address bit 0 (master mode)
    pub fn sadd0(&self) -> Sadd0R { .. }

    /// Bits 1:7 - Slave address bit 7:1 (master mode)
    pub fn sadd1(&self) -> Sadd1R { .. }


Usage looks like this:

// is the SADD0 bit of the CR2 register set?
if == 1 {
    // yes
} else {
    // no

On the other hand, the write method writes some value to the register using a single, volatile STR instruction. This method involves a W struct that only allows constructing valid states of the CR2 register.

The only constructor that W provides is reset_value which returns the value of the CR2 register after a reset. The rest of W methods are "builder-like" and can be used to modify the writable bitfields of the CR2 register.

impl Cr2W {
    /// Reset value
    pub fn reset_value() -> Self {
        Cr2W { bits: 0 }

    /// Bits 1:7 - Slave address bit 7:1 (master mode)
    pub fn sadd1(&mut self) -> _Sadd1W { .. }

    /// Bit 0 - Slave address bit 0 (master mode)
    pub fn sadd0(&mut self) -> _Sadd0 { .. }

The write method takes a closure with signature (&mut W) -> &mut W. If the "identity closure", |w| w, is passed then the write method will set the CR2 register to its reset value. Otherwise, the closure specifies how the reset value will be modified before it's written to CR2.

Usage looks like this:

// Starting from the reset value, `0x0000_0000`, change the bitfields SADD0
// and SADD1 to `1` and `0b0011110` respectively and write that to the
// register CR2.
i2c1.cr2.write(|w| unsafe { w.sadd0().bits(1).sadd1().bits(0b0011110) });
// NOTE ^ unsafe because you could be writing a reserved bit pattern into
// the register. In this case, the SVD doesn't provide enough information to
// check whether that's the case.

// NOTE The argument to `bits` will be *masked* before writing it to the
// bitfield. This makes it impossible to write, for example, `6` to a 2-bit
// field; instead, `6 & 3` (i.e. `2`) will be written to the bitfield.

Finally, the modify method performs a single read-modify-write operation that involves one read (LDR) to the register, modifying the value and then a single write (STR) of the modified value to the register. This method accepts a closure that specifies how the CR2 register will be modified (the w argument) and also provides access to the state of the register before it's modified (the r argument).

Usage looks like this:

// Set the START bit to 1 while KEEPING the state of the other bits intact
i2c1.cr2.modify(|_, w| unsafe { w.start().bits(1) });

// TOGGLE the STOP bit, all the other bits will remain untouched
i2c1.cr2.modify(|r, w| w.stop().bits(r.stop().bits() ^ 1));


If your SVD uses the <enumeratedValues> feature, then the API will be extended to provide even more type safety. This extension is backward compatible with the original version so you could "upgrade" your SVD by adding, yourself, <enumeratedValues> to it and then use svd2rust to re-generate a better API that doesn't break the existing code that uses that API.

The new read API returns an enum that you can match:

match {
    gpioa::dir::Pin0R::Input => { .. },
    gpioa::dir::Pin0R::Output => { .. },

or test for equality

if == gpio::dir::Pin0R::Input {

It also provides convenience methods to check for a specific variant without having to import the enum:

if {

if {

The original bits method is available as well:

if == 0 {

And the new write API provides similar additions as well: variant lets you pick the value to write from an enumeration of the possible ones:

// enum DirW { Input, Output }
gpioa.dir.write(|w| w.pin0().variant(gpio::dir::Pin0W::Output));

There are convenience methods to pick one of the variants without having to import the enum:

gpioa.dir.write(|w| w.pin0().output());

The bits method is still available but will become safe if it's impossible to write a reserved bit pattern into the register

// safe because there are only two options: `0` or `1`
gpioa.dir.write(|w| w.pin0().bits(1));

Interrupt API

SVD files also describe the interrupts available to the device. Binary output wise, the interrupt handlers must be stored in the vector table region of Flash memory. svd2rust provides an API to easily "register" interrupt handlers.

/// Interrupts
pub mod interrupt {
    /// Interrupt handlers
    pub struct Handlers {
        /// Window Watchdog interrupt
        pub wwdg: unsafe extern "C" fn(Wwdg),
        /// PVD through EXTI line detection interrupt
        pub pvd: unsafe extern "C" fn(Pvd),

    pub const DEFAULT_HANDLERS: Handlers = Handlers {
        wwdg: exception::default_handler,
        pvd: exception::default_handler,

This Handlers API then can be used in applications to register the interrupt handlers:

fn main() { .. }

// My interrupt handler
extern "C" fn tim7(_: interrupt::Tim7) { .. }

pub static _INTERRUPT: interrupt::Handlers = interrupt::Handlers {
    tim7: tim7, ..interrupt::DEFAULT_HANDLERS

This requires some linker script support:

    .text ORIGIN(FLASH) :
        /* Vector table */
        LONG(ORIGIN(RAM) + LENGTH(RAM));  /* Initial SP value */
        LONG(__reset + 1);  /* Reset handler */

        KEEP(*(.rodata._EXCEPTIONS));  /* exception handlers */
        KEEP(*(.rodata._INTERRUPTS));  /* interrupt handlers */

The generated API also includes an Interrupt enum

pub mod interrupt {
    /// Enumeration of all the interrupts
    pub enum Interrupt {

that can be used with cortex-m's NVIC API:

interrupt::free(|cs| {