Expand description

Miniscript and Output Descriptors


Bitcoin Script

In Bitcoin, spending policies are defined and enforced by means of a stack-based programming language known as Bitcoin Script. While this language appears to be designed with tractable analysis in mind (e.g. there are no looping or jumping constructions), in practice this is extremely difficult. As a result, typical wallet software supports only a small set of script templates, cannot interoperate with other similar software, and each wallet contains independently written ad-hoc manually verified code to handle these templates. Users who require more complex spending policies, or who want to combine signing infrastructure which was not explicitly designed to work together, are simply out of luck.


Miniscript is an alternative to Bitcoin Script which eliminates these problems. It can be efficiently and simply encoded as Script to ensure that it works on the Bitcoin blockchain, but its design is very different. Essentially, a Miniscript is a monotone function (tree of ANDs, ORs and thresholds) of signature requirements, hash preimage requirements, and timelocks.

A full description of Miniscript is available here.

Miniscript also admits a more human-readable encoding.

Output Descriptors

While spending policies in Bitcoin are entirely defined by Script; there are multiple ways of embedding these Scripts in transaction outputs; for example, P2SH or Segwit v0. These different embeddings are expressed by Output Descriptors, which are described here


Deriving an address from a descriptor

extern crate bitcoin;
extern crate sapio_miniscript as miniscript;

use std::str::FromStr;
use miniscript::{DescriptorTrait};

fn main() {
    let desc = miniscript::Descriptor::<

    // Derive the P2SH address

    // Check whether the descriptor is safe
    // This checks whether all spend paths are accessible in bitcoin network.
    // It maybe possible that some of the spend require more than 100 elements in Wsh scripts
    // Or they contain a combination of timelock and heightlock.

    // Estimate the satisfaction cost
    assert_eq!(desc.max_satisfaction_weight().unwrap(), 293);


pub extern crate bitcoin;
pub use descriptor::Descriptor;
pub use descriptor::DescriptorTrait;
pub use interpreter::Interpreter;
pub use miniscript::decode::Terminal;
pub use miniscript::satisfy::Preimage32;
pub use miniscript::satisfy::Satisfier;
pub use miniscript::Miniscript;


Output Descriptors

Function-like Expression Language


Abstract Syntax Tree

Script Policies

Partially-Signed Bitcoin Transactions


Dummy key which de/serializes to the empty string; useful sometimes for testing

Dummy keyhash which de/serializes to the empty string; useful sometimes for testing


Bare ScriptContext To be used as raw script pubkeys In general, it is not recommended to use Bare descriptors as they as strongly limited by standardness policies.

The MiniscriptKey corresponding to Descriptors. This can either be Single public key or a Xpub


Either a key or a keyhash

Legacy ScriptContext To be used as P2SH scripts For creation of Bare scriptpubkeys, construct the Miniscript under Bare ScriptContext

Script descriptor

Segwitv0 ScriptContext

Tap ScriptContext


Trait describing the ability to iterate over every key

Public key trait which can be converted to Hash type

A general trait for Pre taproot bitcoin descriptor. Similar to DescriptorTrait, but explicit_script and script_code methods cannot fail

The ScriptContext for Miniscript. Additional type information associated with miniscript that is used for carrying out checks that dependent on the context under which the script is used. For example, disallowing uncompressed keys in Segwit context

Trait describing public key types which can be converted to bitcoin pubkeys

Convert a descriptor using abstract keys to one using specific keys This will panic if translatefpk returns an uncompressed key when converting to a Segwit descriptor. To prevent this panic, ensure translatefpk returns an error in this case instead.

Variant of TranslatePk where P and Q both have the same hash type, and the hashes can be converted by just cloning them

Variant of TranslatePk where P’s hash is P, so the hashes can be converted by reusing the key-conversion function

Variant of TranslatePk where Q’s hash is hash160 so we can derive hashes by calling hash_to_hash160


The size of an encoding of a number in Script