Crate lazy_static [] [src]

A macro for declaring lazily evaluated statics.

Using this macro, it is possible to have statics that require code to be executed at runtime in order to be initialized. This includes anything requiring heap allocations, like vectors or hash maps, as well as anything that requires function calls to be computed.

Syntax

Be careful when using this code, it's not being tested!
lazy_static! {
    [pub] static ref NAME_1: TYPE_1 = EXPR_1;
    [pub] static ref NAME_2: TYPE_2 = EXPR_2;
    ...
    [pub] static ref NAME_N: TYPE_N = EXPR_N;
}

Attributes (including doc comments) are supported as well:

lazy_static! {
    /// This is an example for using doc comment attributes
    static ref EXAMPLE: u8 = 42;
}

Semantics

For a given static ref NAME: TYPE = EXPR;, the macro generates a unique type that implements Deref<TYPE> and stores it in a static with name NAME. (Attributes end up attaching to this type.)

On first deref, EXPR gets evaluated and stored internally, such that all further derefs can return a reference to the same object. Note that this can lead to deadlocks if you have multiple lazy statics that depend on each other in their initialization.

Apart from the lazy initialization, the resulting "static ref" variables have generally the same properties as regular "static" variables:

Example

Using the macro:

#[macro_use]
extern crate lazy_static;

use std::collections::HashMap;

lazy_static! {
    static ref HASHMAP: HashMap<u32, &'static str> = {
        let mut m = HashMap::new();
        m.insert(0, "foo");
        m.insert(1, "bar");
        m.insert(2, "baz");
        m
    };
    static ref COUNT: usize = HASHMAP.len();
    static ref NUMBER: u32 = times_two(21);
}

fn times_two(n: u32) -> u32 { n * 2 }

fn main() {
    println!("The map has {} entries.", *COUNT);
    println!("The entry for `0` is \"{}\".", HASHMAP.get(&0).unwrap());
    println!("A expensive calculation on a static results in: {}.", *NUMBER);
}

Implementation details

The Deref implementation uses a hidden static variable that is guarded by a atomic check on each access.

Cargo features

This crate provides two cargo features:

Both features depend on unstable language features, which means no guarantees can be made about them in regard to SemVer stability.

Macros

lazy_static

Traits

LazyStatic

Support trait for enabling a few common operation on lazy static values.

Functions

initialize

Takes a shared reference to a lazy static and initializes it if it has not been already.