Hyper is a fast, modern HTTP implementation written in and for Rust. It is a low-level typesafe abstraction over raw HTTP, providing an elegant layer over "stringly-typed" HTTP.
Hyper offers both a Client and a Server which can be used to drive complex web applications written entirely in Rust.
Hyper is designed as a relatively low-level wrapper over raw HTTP. It should allow the implementation of higher-level abstractions with as little pain as possible, and should not irrevocably hide any information from its users.
Functionality and code shared between the Server and Client implementations
can be found in
src directly - this includes
StatusCode, and so on.
Methods are represented as a single
enum to remain as simple as possible.
Extension Methods are represented as raw
Strings. A method's safety and
idempotence can be accessed using the
Status codes are also represented as a single, exhaustive,
representation is efficient, typesafe, and ergonomic as it allows the use of
match to disambiguate known status codes.
Hyper's header representation is likely the most complex API exposed by Hyper.
Hyper's headers are an abstraction over an internal
HashMap and provides a
typesafe API for interacting with headers that does not rely on the use of
Each HTTP header in Hyper has an associated type and implementation of the
Header trait, which defines an HTTP headers name as a string, how to parse
that header, and how to format that header.
Headers are then parsed from the string representation lazily when the typed representation of a header is requested and formatted back into their string representation when headers are written back to the client.
NetworkStream and NetworkAcceptor
These are found in
src/net.rs and define the interface that acceptors and
streams must fulfill for them to be used within Hyper. They are by and large
internal tools and you should only need to mess around with them if you want to
mock or replace
Server-specific functionality, such as
representations, are found in in
Handler + Server
Handler in Hyper accepts a
Response. This is where
user-code can handle each connection. The server accepts connections in a
task pool with a customizable number of threads, and passes the Request /
Response to the handler.
An incoming HTTP Request is represented as a struct containing
Reader over a
NetworkStream, which represents the body, headers, a remote
address, an HTTP version, and a
Method - relatively standard stuff.
Reader itself, meaning that you can ergonomically get
the body out of a
Request using standard
Reader methods and helpers.
An outgoing HTTP Response is also represented as a struct containing a
NetworkStream which represents the Response body in addition to
standard items such as the
StatusCode and HTTP version.
implementation provides a streaming interface for sending data over to the
One of the traditional problems with representing outgoing HTTP Responses is tracking the write-status of the Response - have we written the status-line, the headers, the body, etc.? Hyper tracks this information statically using the type system and prevents you, using the type system, from writing headers after you have started writing to the body or vice versa.
Hyper does this through a phantom type parameter in the definition of Response,
which tracks whether you are allowed to write to the headers or the body. This
phantom type can have two values
indicating that you can write the headers and
Streaming indicating that you
may write to the body, but not the headers.
Client-specific functionality, such as
representations, are found in
An outgoing HTTP Request is represented as a struct containing a
NetworkStream which represents the Request body in addition to the standard
information such as headers and the request method.
Outgoing Requests track their write-status in almost exactly the same way as outgoing HTTP Responses do on the Server, so we will defer to the explanation in the documentation for server Response.
Requests expose an efficient streaming interface instead of a builder pattern, but they also provide the needed interface for creating a builder pattern over the API exposed by core Hyper.
Incoming HTTP Responses are represented as a struct containing a
NetworkStream and contain headers, a status, and an http version. They
Reader and can be read to get the data out of a
Error and Result module.
Headers container, and common header fields.
Pieces pertaining to the HTTP message protocol.
The HTTP request method
Re-exporting the mime crate, for convenience.
A collection of traits abstracting over Listeners and Streams.
HTTP status codes
HTTP Versions enum
A language tag as described in BCP47.
A parsed URL record.