Crate genpdf[][src]

Expand description

User-friendly PDF generator written in pure Rust.

genpdf is a high-level PDF generator built ontop of printpdf and rusttype. It takes care of the page layout and text alignment and renders a document tree into a PDF document. All of its dependencies are written in Rust, so you don’t need any pre-installed libraries or tools.


To generate a PDF document, create an instance of the Document struct and add Element implementations to it. Then call the Document::render_to_file method to render the document and to write it to a file.

// Load a font from the file system
let font_family = genpdf::fonts::from_files("./fonts", "LiberationSans", None)
    .expect("Failed to load font family");
// Create a document and set the default font family
let mut doc = genpdf::Document::new(font_family);
// Change the default settings
doc.set_title("Demo document");
// Customize the pages
let mut decorator = genpdf::SimplePageDecorator::new();
// Add one or more elements
doc.push(genpdf::elements::Paragraph::new("This is a demo document."));
// Render the document and write it to a file
doc.render_to_file("output.pdf").expect("Failed to write PDF file");

For a complete example with all supported elements, see the examples/ file that generates this PDF document.


A Document consists of a LinearLayout that renders the added elements, a FontCache instance that keeps track of the loaded fonts and a collection of default values for the text style and the page layout.

When creating a Document instance, you always have to set the default font family that will be used for the document. You can load additional fonts with the Document::load_font_family method.

The style of a shape or text can be set using the Style struct. The style is inherited within the document tree. You can set the style of an element by wrapping it in a StyledElement (see the Element::styled method) or – for text elements – with a StyledString.

For an overview of the available elements, see the elements module. You can also create custom elements by implementing the Element trait.

The actual PDF document is generated from the elements that have been added to the document once you call the Document::render or Document::render_to_file methods. For details on the rendering process, see the next section.

In genpdf, all lengths are measured in millimeters. The only exceptions are font sizes that are measured in points. The Mm newtype struct is used for all lengths, and the Position and Size types are used to describe points and rectangles in the PDF document.

Rendering Process

The rendering process is started by calling the Document::render or Document::render_to_file methods. You can only render a document once. Before the rendering starts, the PDF document is created and all loaded fonts are embedded into the document.

The elements are then rendered by calling the Element::render method of the root element, a LinearLayout. This element will then call the render methods of the elements stored in the layout, and so on.

The Element::render method receives the following arguments:

  • context is the context for the rendering process, see Context. Currently, it only stores the FontCache instance that keeps track of the loaded fonts and can be used to map a Style instance to font data.
  • area is a view on the area of the current page that can be used by the element.
  • style is the Style instance for this element. Is is a combination of the default style of the Document and the style set by StyledElement instances that are parents of the current element.

The render method tries to render the entire element in the provided area. The returned RenderResult stores the size of the area that has actually been used to render the element. If the element did not fit into the provided area, the has_more field of the RenderResult is set to true. This causes the Document to add a new page to the PDF document and then call the render method again with an area of the new page. This is repeated until all elements have been rendered completely, that means until all elements return a RenderResult with has_more == false.

Elements may print to the provided area using the methods of the Area struct, or by calling the render method of other elements, or both.

Every new page is prepared by calling the document’s PageDecorator (if set). This decorator can add a margin to the page, print a header, a footer, or perform other tasks.

The render process is cancelled if an Element returns an error, or if no content has been rendered to a newly created page. This indicates that an element does not fit on a clear page and can’t even be rendered partially, so the rendering process is cancelled.

As the Element::render method is called repeatedly until the complete element has been rendered, the element has to keep track of the content that has already been rendered. As there is only one rendering process per document, elements may discard data that has been rendered and that is no longer needed.

Low-Level Interface

The render module contains a low-level interface for creating PDF files. It keeps track of page sizes and layers and has utility methods for easier text and shape rendering. But it does not provide support for measuring the size of rendered text or for laying out elements. If possible, you should always try to use genpdf’s high-level interface and implement the Element trait if you want to customize a document instead of using the low-level interface directly.

Known Issues

  • Currently, genpdf adds all loaded fonts to the PDF document, even if they are not used. printpdf then adds all available glyphs for these fonts to the document, even if they are not used in the document. This increases the file size by 100–200 KiB per font (500–1000 KiB per font family). Until this is fixed, you can pass the generated file through ps2pdf to significantly reduce its size. Alternatively, you can use a built-in font if you don’t need any characters that are not supported by the Windows-1252 encoding.



Elements of a PDF document.


Error types for genpdf.


Fonts, font families and a font cache.


Low-level PDF rendering utilities.


Types for styled strings.



The context for a rendering process.


A PDF document.


The margins of an area, measured in millimeters.


A length measured in millimeters.


A position on a PDF layer, measured in millimeters.


The result of the rendering process.


A rotation in degrees clock-wise in range [-180.0, 180.0] inclusive.


A size to stretch an image on a PDF layer; measured in percentage.


Prepares a page of a document with margins and a header.


A size of an area on a PDF layer, measured in millimeters.



The alignment of a Paragraph or [‘Image’][].


A paper size like A4, legal or letter.



An element of a PDF document.


Prepares a page of a document.