# Crate fibonacci_codec[−][src]

Traits and functions for encoding and decoding (slices of) positive integers using Fibonacci Coding.

Fibonacci coding is a method for representing a continuous stream of (positive) integers using a variable number of bits – e.g., instead of taking up 2*32 bits for storing two `u32` words, these words will take up however many bits their fibonacci-encoded representation takes up.

Fibonacci coding yields better results for smaller numbers than larger ones: The largest 32-bit words can take up to 47 bits, but to encode the number `1`, you only need 2 bits.

Fibonacci coding is self-synchronizing: If a single bit is altered, a single number could be decoded as two (or two numbers decoded as one), but the remaining numbers will be read correctly.

## Value range

Fibonacci coding can represent any number that can be expressed as addition of one or more Fibonacci numbers, so any integer greater than 1, up to the range of the given machine integer type. This means that the integer zero can not be encoded.

If you should need to encode `0`, it is advisable to encode numbers incremented by one (preventing overflow by upgrading to the next-biggest integer type, or by not encoding the maximum value), and to subtract one from the decoded result. .

# Examples

## Encoding a slice of numbers:

```use fibonacci_codec::Encode;

let numbers: Vec<u16> = vec![1, 50, 3003];
let encoded = &numbers.fib_encode().unwrap();
// code words: "11" (1), "001001011" (50), "000010010000100011" (3003)
// These encoded words take up 4 bytes instead of 6 (3*16 bits)!
assert_eq!(encoded.to_bytes(), [0b11001001, 0b01100001, 0b00100001, 0b00011000]);```

## Encoding the value zero:

```use fibonacci_codec::Encode;

let numbers: Vec<u16> = vec![0, 49, 3002];
let adjusted: Vec<u32> = numbers.iter().map(|n| *n as u32 + 1).collect();
// code words: "11" (1), "001001011" (50), "000010010000100011" (3003)
// These encoded words take up 4 bytes instead of 6 (3*16 bits)!
assert_eq!(encoded.to_bytes(), [0b11001001, 0b01100001, 0b00100001, 0b00011000]);```

# References:

 int

## Structs

 ElementEncodeError Indicates that encoding an iterator failed at an element.

## Enums

 DecodeError Returned if decoding a number fails. Usually indicates an overflow of the number being decoded. EncodeError Indicates that encoding a number failed.

## Traits

 Encode Allows encoding enumerations of unsigned integers (> 0) using fibonacci coding. EncodeOne Allows encoding single primitive integers (> 0) using fibonacci coding.

## Functions

 fib_decode_u8 Returns an iterator that consumes bits (`bool`) and fibonacci-decodes them into `u8` integers. fib_decode_u16 Returns an iterator that consumes bits (`bool`) and fibonacci-decodes them into `u16` integers. fib_decode_u32 Returns an iterator that consumes bits (`bool`) and fibonacci-decodes them into `u32` integers. fib_decode_u64 Returns an iterator that consumes bits (`bool`) and fibonacci-decodes them into `u64` integers.