wasm-sign 0.1.0

WebAssembly module signing and verification tool to proof authenticity and integrity of WebAssembly bytecodes. The signature is attached as Custom-Section to the end of th module. The signed module can be transfered over network. Recipients parsing the signed module will 'see' an additional Custom-Section of type 0 and name 'signature'. The Signature adds an overhead of 86 bytes.
wasm-sign-0.1.0 is not a library.

WebAssembly Module Signature

This repository describing the design and high-level overview of the WebAssembly Module Signature (WAMS)


The WebAssembly Module Signature shall proof authenticity and integrity of the WebAssembly module, as file or parsed.


The WebAssembly Module Signature shall provide the following features

  • It shall be possible to sign a WebAssembly Module file without parsing
  • The signature signs the serialized form being used for files and networ-transfer.
  • A module shall be signed as is, completely, including the custom-sections.
  • The module sections shall not be re-ordered to meet a canonical form.
  • All module signatures shall be of equal size.
  • It shall be possible to verify a signature without parsing of the module
  • It shall be possible with simple tools to split a WebAssembly module into both parts, the signature and the signed content
  • Signatures shall use the ECDSA algorithm with SHA256.
  • The public key may be publicly available and may be distributed using DNS-TXT-Records.


  • The WebAssembly module signature is a Custom-Section with type id 0, the section name must be formed by 9 characters, so all signatures have equal byte-size
  • A module may contain just one signatures (may be extended in future)
  • A signature signs the all present sections of the data stream, as is.
  • The section name "signature" (9 chars) is the default signature.
  • The payload of the custom-section contains the ECDSA signature; the complete section has octet-size 118.
  • New signature-sections shall be appended to the end of a module only.
  • Removing the last 118 bytes from a module-bytecode, the signature-section is cut off.
  • The tool shall support secp256k1 in initial version and in future versions Ed25519 and secp384r1 (hence the reserved bytes at end)

Each signature section ist formed of a sequence of 118 octets:

Fields Bytes
Section Type (Custom): 0x0
Section Size: 0x84
Section Name Length: 0x9
Section Name Octets [9]: [0x115, 0x105, 0x103, 0x110, 0x97, 0x116, 0x117, 0x114, 0x101]
Signature Type : 0x0 which stands for ECDSA/SHA256 with max digest length of max. 72 bytes
Signature length: Single byte value 72 or less
Signature: [...]
Padding bytes: 0..33 padding bytes filling extending the digest-length to up to 104 bytes (secp384r1)
  • Index 12 SIGNATURE_TYPE (for know only 0==secp256k1/SHA256 is defined)
  • Index 13 ECDSA_DATA_LENGTH, may range between 72 and less, filled up by padding bytes
  • Index 14 ECDSA_DATA_START, first byte of ECDSA digest
  • Index 14+ECDSA_DATA_LENGTH, end of the digest

In case the digest has byte size 72 (secp256k1) the preamble looks like (followed by the ECDSA digest):

[0, 84, 9, 115, 105, 103, 110, 97, 116, 117, 114, 101, 0, 72 ]

The digest is calculated using ciphers secp256k1/SHA256. Trailing padding bytes fill up to total length of 118 bytes.


Private Key Generation

This is the key that must be kept secret and is used to sign your WASM files.

openssl ecparam -name secp256k1 -genkey -noout -out signerkey.pem

Public Key Generation

This is the key that should be published or embedded in your application.

openssl ec -in signerkey.pem -pubout -outform pem -out signerkey.pub.pem

Signing the WASM file

The tool returns with exit code 0 on success, otherwise with error code 1

wasm-sign -k signerkey.pem module.wasm signed-module.wasm

Verifying the WASM file

The tool returns with exit code 0 on success, otherwise with error code 1

wasm-sign -v -k signerkey.pub.pem signed-module.wasm

Signature Example

Output of hexdump -C signed-module.wasm:

00000120  .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 00  54 09 73 69 67 6e 61 74  |j$......T.signat|
00000130  75 72 65 00 47 30 45 02  21 00 a3 32 3e 3b 82 05  |ure.G0E.!..2>;..|
00000140  e7 d1 93 8a 6a 2d 6e 8c  8c 1d 6d cd 54 5e 2d 04  |....j-n...m.T^-.|
00000150  f4 57 4f fd 00 b7 d2 7b  6f fd 02 20 56 32 33 97  |.WO....{o.. V23.|
00000160  55 7c b2 93 06 62 7b d6  0f a2 f4 e0 8f 6c b8 13  |U|...b{......l..|
00000170  0b ae c4 55 5b 37 26 52  b8 61 6e 6d 00           |...U[7&R.anm.|


cargo build --release

Unit Test

cargo test

End2End Test

make test