An implementation of the [Fowler–Noll–Vo hash function][chongo].
The FNV hash function is a custom `Hasher` implementation that is more
efficient for smaller hash keys.
[The Rust FAQ states that][faq] while the default `Hasher` implementation,
SipHash, is good in many cases, it is notably slower than other algorithms
with short keys, such as when you have a map of integers to other values.
In cases like these, [FNV is demonstrably faster][graphs].
Its disadvantages are that it performs badly on larger inputs, and
provides no protection against collision attacks, where a malicious user
can craft specific keys designed to slow a hasher down. Thus, it is
important to profile your program to ensure that you are using small hash
keys, and be certain that your program could not be exposed to malicious
inputs (including being a networked server).
The Rust compiler itself uses FNV, as it is not worried about
denial-of-service attacks, and can assume that its inputs are going to be
small—a perfect use case for FNV.
To include this crate in your program, add the following to your `Cargo.toml`:
fnv = "1.0.3"
The `FnvHashMap` type alias is the easiest way to use the standard library’s
`HashMap` with FNV.
let mut map = FnvHashMap::default();
map = FnvHashMap::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, Default::default());
Note, the standard library’s `HashMap::new` and `HashMap::with_capacity`
are only implemented for the `RandomState` hasher, so using `Default` to
get the hasher is the next best option.
Similarly, `FnvHashSet` is a type alias for the standard library’s `HashSet`
let mut set = FnvHashSet::default();
set = FnvHashSet::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, Default::default());