ed25519-dalek 1.0.1

Fast and efficient ed25519 EdDSA key generations, signing, and verification in pure Rust.
# ed25519-dalek [![](https://img.shields.io/crates/v/ed25519-dalek.svg)](https://crates.io/crates/ed25519-dalek) [![](https://docs.rs/ed25519-dalek/badge.svg)](https://docs.rs/ed25519-dalek) [![](https://travis-ci.org/dalek-cryptography/ed25519-dalek.svg?branch=master)](https://travis-ci.org/dalek-cryptography/ed25519-dalek?branch=master)

Fast and efficient Rust implementation of ed25519 key generation, signing, and
verification in Rust.

# Documentation

Documentation is available [here](https://docs.rs/ed25519-dalek).

# Installation

To install, add the following to your project's `Cargo.toml`:

version = "1"

# Benchmarks

On an Intel Skylake i9-7900X running at 3.30 GHz, without TurboBoost, this code achieves
the following performance benchmarks:

    ∃!isisⒶmistakenot:(master *=)~/code/rust/ed25519-dalek ∴ cargo bench
       Compiling ed25519-dalek v0.7.0 (file:///home/isis/code/rust/ed25519-dalek)
        Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 3.11s
          Running target/release/deps/ed25519_benchmarks-721332beed423bce

    Ed25519 signing                     time:   [15.617 us 15.630 us 15.647 us]
    Ed25519 signature verification      time:   [45.930 us 45.968 us 46.011 us]
    Ed25519 keypair generation          time:   [15.440 us 15.465 us 15.492 us]

By enabling the avx2 backend (on machines with compatible microarchitectures),
the performance for signature verification is greatly improved:

    ∃!isisⒶmistakenot:(master *=)~/code/rust/ed25519-dalek ∴ export RUSTFLAGS=-Ctarget_cpu=native
    ∃!isisⒶmistakenot:(master *=)~/code/rust/ed25519-dalek ∴ cargo bench --features=avx2_backend
       Compiling ed25519-dalek v0.7.0 (file:///home/isis/code/rust/ed25519-dalek)
        Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 4.28s
          Running target/release/deps/ed25519_benchmarks-e4866664de39c84d
    Ed25519 signing                     time:   [15.923 us 15.945 us 15.967 us]
    Ed25519 signature verification      time:   [33.382 us 33.411 us 33.445 us]
    Ed25519 keypair generation          time:   [15.246 us 15.260 us 15.275 us]

In comparison, the equivalent package in Golang performs as follows:

    ∃!isisⒶmistakenot:(master *=)~/code/go/src/github.com/agl/ed25519 ∴ go test -bench .
    BenchmarkKeyGeneration     30000             47007 ns/op
    BenchmarkSigning           30000             48820 ns/op
    BenchmarkVerification      10000            119701 ns/op
    ok      github.com/agl/ed25519  5.775s

Making key generation and signing a rough average of 2x faster, and
verification 2.5-3x faster depending on the availability of avx2.  Of course, this
is just my machine, and these results—nowhere near rigorous—should be taken
with a handful of salt.

Translating to a rough cycle count: we multiply by a factor of 3.3 to convert
nanoseconds to cycles per second on a 3300 Mhz CPU, that's 110256 cycles for
verification and 52618 for signing, which is competitive with hand-optimised
assembly implementations.

Additionally, if you're using a CSPRNG from the `rand` crate, the `nightly`
feature will enable `u128`/`i128` features there, resulting in potentially
faster performance.

If your protocol or application is able to batch signatures for verification,
the `verify_batch()` function has greatly improved performance.  On the
aforementioned Intel Skylake i9-7900X, verifying a batch of 96 signatures takes
1.7673ms.  That's 18.4094us, or roughly 60750 cycles, per signature verification,
more than double the speed of batch verification given in the original paper
(this is likely not a fair comparison as that was a Nehalem machine).
The numbers after the `/` in the test name refer to the size of the batch:

    ∃!isisⒶmistakenot:(master *=)~/code/rust/ed25519-dalek ∴ export RUSTFLAGS=-Ctarget_cpu=native
    ∃!isisⒶmistakenot:(master *=)~/code/rust/ed25519-dalek ∴ cargo bench --features=avx2_backend batch
       Compiling ed25519-dalek v0.8.0 (file:///home/isis/code/rust/ed25519-dalek)
        Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 34.16s
          Running target/release/deps/ed25519_benchmarks-cf0daf7d68fc71b6
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/4   time:   [105.20 us 106.04 us 106.99 us]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/8   time:   [178.66 us 179.01 us 179.39 us]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/16  time:   [325.65 us 326.67 us 327.90 us]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/32  time:   [617.96 us 620.74 us 624.12 us]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/64  time:   [1.1862 ms 1.1900 ms 1.1943 ms]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/96  time:   [1.7611 ms 1.7673 ms 1.7742 ms]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/128 time:   [2.3320 ms 2.3376 ms 2.3446 ms]
    Ed25519 batch signature verification/256 time:   [5.0124 ms 5.0290 ms 5.0491 ms]

As you can see, there's an optimal batch size for each machine, so you'll likely
want to test the benchmarks on your target CPU to discover the best size.  For
this machine, around 100 signatures per batch is the optimum:


Additionally, thanks to Rust, this implementation has both type and memory
safety.  It's also easily readable by a much larger set of people than those who
can read qhasm, making it more readily and more easily auditable.  We're of
the opinion that, ultimately, these features—combined with speed—are more
valuable than simply cycle counts alone.

# A Note on Signature Malleability

The signatures produced by this library are malleable, as discussed in
[the original paper](https://ed25519.cr.yp.to/ed25519-20110926.pdf):


While the scalar component of our `Signature` struct is strictly *not*
malleable, because reduction checks are put in place upon `Signature`
deserialisation from bytes, for all types of signatures in this crate,
there is still the question of potential malleability due to the group
element components.

We could eliminate the latter malleability property by multiplying by the curve
cofactor, however, this would cause our implementation to *not* match the
behaviour of every other implementation in existence.  As of this writing,
[RFC 8032](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8032), "Edwards-Curve Digital
Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)," advises that the stronger check should be done.
While we agree that the stronger check should be done, it is our opinion that
one shouldn't get to change the definition of "ed25519 verification" a decade
after the fact, breaking compatibility with every other implementation.

However, if you require this, please see the documentation for the
`verify_strict()` function, which does the full checks for the group elements.
This functionality is available by default.

If for some reason—although we strongely advise you not to—you need to conform
to the original specification of ed25519 signatures as in the excerpt from the
paper above, you can disable scalar malleability checking via
`--features='legacy_compatibility'`.  **WE STRONGLY ADVISE AGAINST THIS.**

## The `legacy_compatibility` Feature

By default, this library performs a stricter check for malleability in the
scalar component of a signature, upon signature deserialisation.  This stricter
check, that `s < \ell` where `\ell` is the order of the basepoint, is
[mandated by RFC8032](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8032#section-5.1.7).
However, that RFC was standardised a decade after the original paper, which, as
described above, (usually, falsely) stated that malleability was inconsequential.

Because of this, most ed25519 implementations only perform a limited, hackier
check that the most significant three bits of the scalar are unset.  If you need
compatibility with legacy implementations, including:

* ed25519-donna
* Golang's /x/crypto ed25519
* libsodium (only when built with `-DED25519_COMPAT`)
* NaCl's "ref" implementation
* probably a bunch of others

then enable `ed25519-dalek`'s `legacy_compatibility` feature.  Please note and
be forewarned that doing so allows for signature malleability, meaning that
there may be two different and "valid" signatures with the same key for the same
message, which is obviously incredibly dangerous in a number of contexts,
including—but not limited to—identification protocols and cryptocurrency

## The `verify_strict()` Function

The scalar component of a signature is not the only source of signature
malleability, however.  Both the public key used for signature verification and
the group element component of the signature are malleable, as they may contain
a small torsion component as a consquence of the curve25519 group not being of
prime order, but having a small cofactor of 8.

If you wish to also eliminate this source of signature malleability, please
review the
[documentation for the `verify_strict()` function](https://doc.dalek.rs/ed25519_dalek/struct.PublicKey.html#method.verify_strict).

# A Note on Randomness Generation

The original paper's specification and the standarisation of RFC8032 do not
specify precisely how randomness is to be generated, other than using a CSPRNG
(Cryptographically Secure Random Number Generator).  Particularly in the case of
signature verification, where the security proof _relies_ on the uniqueness of
the blinding factors/nonces, it is paramount that these samples of randomness be
unguessable to an adversary.  Because of this, a current growing belief among
cryptographers is that it is safer to prefer _synthetic randomness_.

To explain synthetic randomness, we should first explain how `ed25519-dalek`
handles generation of _deterministic randomness_.  This mode is disabled by
default due to a tiny-but-not-nonexistent chance that this mode will open users
up to fault attacks, wherein an adversary who controls all of the inputs to
batch verification (i.e. the public keys, signatures, and messages) can craft
them in a specialised manner such as to induce a fault (e.g. causing a
mistakenly flipped bit in RAM, overheating a processor, etc.).  In the
deterministic mode, we seed the PRNG which generates our blinding factors/nonces
by creating
[a PRNG based on the Fiat-Shamir transform of the public inputs](https://merlin.cool/transcript/rng.html).
This mode is potentially useful to protocols which require strong auditability
guarantees, as well as those which do not have access to secure system-/chip-
provided randomness.  This feature can be enabled via
`--features='batch_deterministic'`.  Note that we _do not_ support deterministic
signing, due to the numerous pitfalls therein, including a re-used nonce
accidentally revealing the secret key.

In the default mode, we do as above in the fully deterministic mode, but we
ratchet the underlying keccak-f1600 function (used for the provided
transcript-based PRNG) forward additionally based on some system-/chip- provided
randomness.  This provides _synthetic randomness_, that is, randomness based on
both deterministic and undeterinistic data.  The reason for doing this is to
prevent badly seeded system RNGs from ruining the security of the signature
verification scheme.

# Features

## #![no_std]

This library aims to be `#![no_std]` compliant.  If batch verification is
required (`--features='batch'`), please enable either of the `std` or `alloc`

## Nightly Compilers

To cause your application to build `ed25519-dalek` with the nightly feature
enabled by default, instead do:

version = "1"
features = ["nightly"]

To cause your application to instead build with the nightly feature enabled
when someone builds with `cargo build --features="nightly"` add the following
to the `Cargo.toml`:

nightly = ["ed25519-dalek/nightly"]

## Serde

To enable [serde](https://serde.rs) support, build `ed25519-dalek` with the
`serde` feature.

## (Micro)Architecture Specific Backends

By default, `ed25519-dalek` builds against `curve25519-dalek`'s `u64_backend`
feature, which uses Rust's `i128` feature to achieve roughly double the speed as
the `u32_backend` feature.  When targetting 32-bit systems, however, you'll
likely want to compile with `cargo build --no-default-features
--features="u32_backend"`.  If you're building for a machine with avx2
instructions, there's also the experimental `simd_backend`s, currently
comprising either avx2 or avx512 backends.  To use them, compile with
`RUSTFLAGS="-C target_cpu=native" cargo build --no-default-features

## Batch Signature Verification

The standard variants of batch signature verification (i.e. many signatures made
with potentially many different public keys over potentially many different
message) is available via the `batch` feature.  It uses synthetic randomness, as
noted above.

### Deterministic Batch Signature Verification

The same notion of batch signature verification as above, but with purely
deterministic randomness can be enabled via the `batch_deterministic` feature.