calamine 0.22.1

An Excel/OpenDocument Spreadsheets reader and deserializer in pure rust


An Excel/OpenDocument Spreadsheets file reader/deserializer, in pure Rust.

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calamine is a pure Rust library to read and deserialize any spreadsheet file:

  • excel like (xls, xlsx, xlsm, xlsb, xla, xlam)
  • opendocument spreadsheets (ods)

As long as your files are simple enough, this library should just work. For anything else, please file an issue with a failing test or send a pull request!


Serde deserialization

It is as simple as:

use calamine::{open_workbook, Error, Xlsx, Reader, RangeDeserializerBuilder};

fn example() -> Result<(), Error> {
    let path = format!("{}/tests/temperature.xlsx", env!("CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR"));
    let mut workbook: Xlsx<_> = open_workbook(path)?;
    let range = workbook.worksheet_range("Sheet1")
        .ok_or(Error::Msg("Cannot find 'Sheet1'"))??;

    let mut iter = RangeDeserializerBuilder::new().from_range(&range)?;

    if let Some(result) = {
        let (label, value): (String, f64) = result?;
        assert_eq!(label, "celsius");
        assert_eq!(value, 22.2222);
    } else {
        Err(From::from("expected at least one record but got none"))

Note if you want to deserialize a column that may have invalid types (i.e. a float where some values may be strings), you can use Serde's deserialize_with field attribute:

use serde::Deserialize;
use calamine::{RangeDeserializerBuilder, Reader, Xlsx};

struct ExcelRow {
    metric: String,
    #[serde(deserialize_with = "de_opt_f64")]
    value: Option<f64>,

// Convert value cell to Some(f64) if float or int, else None
fn de_opt_f64<'de, D>(deserializer: D) -> Result<Option<f64>, D::Error>
    D: serde::Deserializer<'de>,
    let data_type = calamine::DataType::deserialize(deserializer)?;
    if let Some(float) = data_type.as_f64() {
    } else {

fn main() ->  Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
    let path = format!("{}/tests/excel.xlsx", env!("CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR"));
    let mut excel: Xlsx<_> = open_workbook(path)?;

    let range = excel
      .ok_or(calamine::Error::Msg("Cannot find Sheet1"))??;

    let iter_result =
        RangeDeserializerBuilder::with_headers(&COLUMNS).from_range::<_, ExcelRow>(&range)?;

Reader: Simple

use calamine::{Reader, Xlsx, open_workbook};

let mut excel: Xlsx<_> = open_workbook("file.xlsx").unwrap();
if let Some(Ok(r)) = excel.worksheet_range("Sheet1") {
    for row in r.rows() {
        println!("row={:?}, row[0]={:?}", row, row[0]);

Reader: More complex

Let's assume

  • the file type (xls, xlsx ...) cannot be known at static time
  • we need to get all data from the workbook
  • we need to parse the vba
  • we need to see the defined names
  • and the formula!
use calamine::{Reader, open_workbook_auto, Xlsx, DataType};

// opens a new workbook
let path = ...; // we do not know the file type
let mut workbook = open_workbook_auto(path).expect("Cannot open file");

// Read whole worksheet data and provide some statistics
if let Some(Ok(range)) = workbook.worksheet_range("Sheet1") {
    let total_cells = range.get_size().0 * range.get_size().1;
    let non_empty_cells: usize = range.used_cells().count();
    println!("Found {} cells in 'Sheet1', including {} non empty cells",
             total_cells, non_empty_cells);
    // alternatively, we can manually filter rows
    assert_eq!(non_empty_cells, range.rows()
        .flat_map(|r| r.iter().filter(|&c| c != &DataType::Empty)).count());

// Check if the workbook has a vba project
if let Some(Ok(mut vba)) = workbook.vba_project() {
    let vba = vba.to_mut();
    let module1 = vba.get_module("Module 1").unwrap();
    println!("Module 1 code:");
    println!("{}", module1);
    for r in vba.get_references() {
        if r.is_missing() {
            println!("Reference {} is broken or not accessible",;

// You can also get defined names definition (string representation only)
for name in workbook.defined_names() {
    println!("name: {}, formula: {}", name.0, name.1);

// Now get all formula!
let sheets = workbook.sheet_names().to_owned();
for s in sheets {
    println!("found {} formula in '{}'",
                .expect("sheet not found")
                .expect("error while getting formula")
                .rows().flat_map(|r| r.iter().filter(|f| !f.is_empty()))


  • dates: Add date related fn to DataType.
  • picture: Extract picture data.


Browse the examples directory.


While there is no official benchmark yet, my first tests show a significant boost compared to official C# libraries:

  • Reading cell values: at least 3 times faster
  • Reading vba code: calamine does not read all sheets when opening your workbook, this is not fair


Many (most) part of the specifications are not implemented, the focus has been put on reading cell values and vba code.

The main unsupported items are:

  • no support for writing excel files, this is a read-only library
  • no support for reading extra contents, such as formatting, excel parameter, encrypted components etc ...
  • no support for reading VB for opendocuments


Thanks to xlsx-js developers! This library is by far the simplest open source implementation I could find and helps making sense out of official documentation.

Thanks also to all the contributors!