# [−][src]Crate cgmath

A low-dimensional linear algebra library, targeted at computer graphics.

# Trait overview

In order to make a clean, composable API, we divide operations into traits that are roughly based on mathematical properties. The main ones that we concern ourselves with are listed below:

`VectorSpace`

: Specifies the main operators for vectors, quaternions, and matrices.`MetricSpace`

: For types that have a distance function implemented.`InnerSpace`

: For types that have a dot (or inner) product - ie. vectors or quaternions. This also allows for the definition of operations that are based on the dot product, like finding the magnitude or normalizing.`EuclideanSpace`

: Points in euclidean space, with an associated space of displacement vectors.`Matrix`

: Common operations for matrices of arbitrary dimensions.`SquareMatrix`

: A special trait for matrices where the number of columns equal the number of rows.

Other traits are included for practical convenience, for example:

`Array`

: For contiguous, indexable arrays of elements, specifically vectors.`ElementWise`

: For element-wise addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and remainder operations.

# The prelude

Importing each trait individually can become a chore, so we provide a
`prelude`

module to allow you to import the main traits all at once. For
example:

use cgmath::prelude::*;

## Re-exports

`pub extern crate num_traits;` |

## Modules

conv | Constrained conversion functions for assisting in situations where type inference is difficult. |

prelude | This module contains the most common traits used in |

## Macros

abs_diff_eq | Approximate equality of using the absolute difference. |

abs_diff_ne | Approximate inequality of using the absolute difference. |

assert_abs_diff_eq | An assertion that delegates to |

assert_abs_diff_ne | An assertion that delegates to |

assert_relative_eq | An assertion that delegates to |

assert_relative_ne | An assertion that delegates to |

assert_ulps_eq | An assertion that delegates to |

assert_ulps_ne | An assertion that delegates to |

relative_eq | Approximate equality using both the absolute difference and relative based comparisons. |

relative_ne | Approximate inequality using both the absolute difference and relative based comparisons. |

ulps_eq | Approximate equality using both the absolute difference and ULPs (Units in Last Place). |

ulps_ne | Approximate inequality using both the absolute difference and ULPs (Units in Last Place). |

## Structs

AbsDiff | The requisite parameters for testing for approximate equality using a absolute difference based comparison. |

Basis2 | A two-dimensional rotation matrix. |

Basis3 | A three-dimensional rotation matrix. |

Decomposed | A generic transformation consisting of a rotation, displacement vector and scale amount. |

Deg | An angle, in degrees. |

Euler | A set of Euler angles representing a rotation in three-dimensional space. |

Matrix2 | A 2 x 2, column major matrix |

Matrix3 | A 3 x 3, column major matrix |

Matrix4 | A 4 x 4, column major matrix |

Ortho | An orthographic projection with arbitrary left/right/bottom/top distances |

Perspective | A perspective projection with arbitrary left/right/bottom/top distances |

PerspectiveFov | A perspective projection based on a vertical field-of-view angle. |

Point1 | A point in 1-dimensional space. |

Point2 | A point in 2-dimensional space. |

Point3 | A point in 3-dimensional space. |

Quaternion | A quaternion in scalar/vector form. |

Rad | An angle, in radians. |

Relative | The requisite parameters for testing for approximate equality using a relative based comparison. |

Ulps | The requisite parameters for testing for approximate equality using an ULPs based comparison. |

Vector1 | A 1-dimensional vector. |

Vector2 | A 2-dimensional vector. |

Vector3 | A 3-dimensional vector. |

Vector4 | A 4-dimensional vector. |

## Traits

AbsDiffEq | Equality that is defined using the absolute difference of two numbers. |

Angle | Angles and their associated trigonometric functions. |

Array | An array containing elements of type |

BaseFloat | Base floating point types |

BaseNum | Base numeric types with partial ordering |

Bounded | Numbers which have upper and lower bounds |

ElementWise | Element-wise arithmetic operations. These are supplied for pragmatic reasons, but will usually fall outside of traditional algebraic properties. |

EuclideanSpace | Points in a Euclidean space with an associated space of displacement vectors. |

InnerSpace | |

Matrix | A column-major matrix of arbitrary dimensions. |

MetricSpace | A type with a distance function between values. |

One | Defines a multiplicative identity element for |

RelativeEq | Equality comparisons between two numbers using both the absolute difference and relative based comparisons. |

Rotation | A trait for a generic rotation. A rotation is a transformation that creates a circular motion, and preserves at least one point in the space. |

Rotation2 | A two-dimensional rotation. |

Rotation3 | A three-dimensional rotation. |

SquareMatrix | A column-major major matrix where the rows and column vectors are of the same dimensions. |

Transform | A trait representing an affine transformation that can be applied to points or vectors. An affine transformation is one which |

Transform2 | |

Transform3 | |

UlpsEq | Equality comparisons between two numbers using both the absolute difference and ULPs (Units in Last Place) based comparisons. |

VectorSpace | Vectors that can be added together and multiplied by scalars. |

Zero | Defines an additive identity element for |

## Functions

dot | Dot product of two vectors. |

frustum | Create a perspective matrix from a view frustum. |

ortho | Create an orthographic projection matrix. |

perspective | Create a perspective projection matrix. |

point1 | The short constructor. |

point2 | The short constructor. |

point3 | The short constructor. |

vec1 | The short constructor. |

vec2 | The short constructor. |

vec3 | The short constructor. |

vec4 | The short constructor. |