Crate cbe_program

source ·
Expand description

The base library for all Cartallum CBE on-chain Rust programs.

All Cartallum CBE Rust programs that run on-chain will link to this crate, which acts as a standard library for Cartallum CBE programs. Cartallum CBE programs also link to the Rust standard library, though it is modified for the Cartallum CBE runtime environment. While off-chain programs that interact with the Cartallum CBE network can link to this crate, they typically instead use the cbe-sdk crate, which reexports all modules from cbe-program.

This library defines

Idiomatic examples of cbe-program usage can be found in the Cartallum CBE Program Library.

Defining a cbe program

Cartallum CBE program crates have some unique properties compared to typical Rust programs:

  • They are often compiled for both on-chain use and off-chain use. This is primarily because off-chain clients may need access to data types defined by the on-chain program.
  • They do not define a main function, but instead define their entrypoint with the entrypoint! macro.
  • They are compiled as the “cdylib” crate type for dynamic loading by the Cartallum CBE runtime.
  • They run in a constrained VM environment, and while they do have access to the Rust standard library, many features of the standard library, particularly related to OS services, will fail at runtime, will silently do nothing, or are not defined. See the restrictions to the Rust standard library in the Cartallum CBE documentation for more.

Because multiple crates that are linked together cannot all define program entrypoints (see the entrypoint! documentation) a common convention is to use a Cargo feature called no-entrypoint to allow the program entrypoint to be disabled.

The skeleton of a Cartallum CBE program typically looks like:

#[cfg(not(feature = "no-entrypoint"))]
pub mod entrypoint {
    use cbe_program::{


    pub fn process_instruction(
        program_id: &Pubkey,
        accounts: &[AccountInfo],
        instruction_data: &[u8],
    ) -> ProgramResult {
        // Decode and dispatch instructions here.

// Additional code goes here.

With a Cargo.toml file that contains

crate-type = ["cdylib", "rlib"]

no-entrypoint = []

Note that a Cartallum CBE program must specify its crate-type as “cdylib”, and “cdylib” crates will automatically be discovered and built by the cargo build-bpf command. Cartallum CBE programs also often have crate-type “rlib” so they can be linked to other Rust crates.

On-chain vs. off-chain compilation targets

Cartallum CBE programs run on the rbpf VM, which implements a variant of the eBPF instruction set. Because this crate can be compiled for both on-chain and off-chain execution, the environments of which are significantly different, it extensively uses conditional compilation to tailor its implementation to the environment. The cfg predicate used for identifying compilation for on-chain programs is target_os = "cbe", as in this example from the cbe-program codebase that logs a message via a syscall when run on-chain, and via a library call when offchain:

pub fn cbe_log(message: &str) {
    #[cfg(target_os = "cbe")]
    unsafe {
        cbe_log_(message.as_ptr(), message.len() as u64);

    #[cfg(not(target_os = "cbe"))]

This cfg pattern is suitable as well for user code that needs to work both on-chain and off-chain.

cbe-program and cbe-sdk were previously a single crate. Because of this history, and because of the dual-usage of cbe-program for two different environments, it contains some features that are not available to on-chain programs at compile-time. It also contains some on-chain features that will fail in off-chain scenarios at runtime. This distinction is not well-reflected in the documentation.

For a more complete description of Cartallum CBE’s implementation of eBPF and its limitations, see the main Cartallum CBE documentation for on-chain programs.

Core data types

  • Pubkey — The address of a Cartallum CBE account. Some account addresses are ed25519 public keys, with corresponding secret keys that are managed off-chain. Often, though, account addresses do not have corresponding secret keys — as with program derived addresses — or the secret key is not relevant to the operation of a program, and may have even been disposed of. As running Cartallum CBE programs can not safely create or manage secret keys, the full Keypair is not defined in cbe-program but in cbe-sdk.
  • Hash — A cryptographic hash. Used to uniquely identify blocks, and also for general purpose hashing.
  • AccountInfo — A description of a single Cartallum CBE account. All accounts that might be accessed by a program invocation are provided to the program entrypoint as AccountInfo.
  • Instruction — A directive telling the runtime to execute a program, passing it a set of accounts and program-specific data.
  • ProgramError and ProgramResult — The error type that all programs must return, reported to the runtime as a u64.
  • CBC — The Cartallum CBE native token type, with conversions to and from scoobies, the smallest fractional unit of CBC, in the native_token module.


Within the Cartallum CBE runtime, programs, and network, at least three different serialization formats are used, and cbe-program provides access to those needed by programs.

In user-written Cartallum CBE program code, serialization is primarily used for accessing AccountInfo data and Instruction data, both of which are program-specific binary data. Every program is free to decide their own serialization format, but data received from other sources — sysvars for example — must be deserialized using the methods indicated by the documentation for that data or data type.

The three serialization formats in use in Cartallum CBE are:

  • Borsh, a compact and well-specified format developed by the NEAR project, suitable for use in protocol definitions and for archival storage. It has a Rust implementation and a JavaScript implementation and is recommended for all purposes.

    Users need to import the borsh crate themselves — it is not re-exported by cbe-program, though this crate provides several useful utilities in its borsh module that are not available in the borsh library.

    The Instruction::new_with_borsh function creates an Instruction by serializing a value with borsh.

  • Bincode, a compact serialization format that implements the Serde Rust APIs. As it does not have a specification nor a JavaScript implementation, and uses more CPU than borsh, it is not recommend for new code.

    Many system program and native program instructions are serialized with bincode, and it is used for other purposes in the runtime. In these cases Rust programmers are generally not directly exposed to the encoding format as it is hidden behind APIs.

    The Instruction::new_with_bincode function creates an Instruction by serializing a value with bincode.

  • Pack, a Cartallum CBE-specific serialization API that is used by many older programs in the Cartallum CBE Program Library to define their account format. It is difficult to implement and does not define a language-independent serialization format. It is not generally recommended for new code.

Developers should carefully consider the CPU cost of serialization, balanced against the need for correctness and ease of use: off-the-shelf serialization formats tend to be more expensive than carefully hand-written application-specific formats; but application-specific formats are more difficult to ensure the correctness of, and to provide multi-language implementations for. It is not uncommon for programs to pack and unpack their data with hand-written code.

Cross-program instruction execution

Cartallum CBE programs may call other programs, termed cross-program invocation (CPI), with the invoke and invoke_signed functions. When calling another program the caller must provide the Instruction to be invoked, as well as the AccountInfo for every account required by the instruction. Because the only way for a program to acquire AccountInfo values is by receiving them from the runtime at the program entrypoint, any account required by the callee program must transitively be required by the caller program, and provided by its caller.

A simple example of transferring scoobies via CPI:

use cbe_program::{
    account_info::{next_account_info, AccountInfo},


fn process_instruction(
    program_id: &Pubkey,
    accounts: &[AccountInfo],
    instruction_data: &[u8],
) -> ProgramResult {
    let account_info_iter = &mut accounts.iter();

    let payer = next_account_info(account_info_iter)?;
    let recipient = next_account_info(account_info_iter)?;
    // The system program is a required account to invoke a system
    // instruction, even though we don't use it directly.
    let system_account = next_account_info(account_info_iter)?;


    let scoobies = 1000000;

        &system_instruction::transfer(payer.key, recipient.key, scoobies),
        &[payer.clone(), recipient.clone(), system_account.clone()],

Cartallum CBE also includes a mechanism to let programs control and sign for accounts without needing to protect a corresponding secret key, called program derived addresses. PDAs are derived with the Pubkey::find_program_address function. With a PDA, a program can call invoke_signed to call another program while virtually “signing” for the PDA.

A simple example of creating an account for a PDA:

use cbe_program::{
    account_info::{next_account_info, AccountInfo},


fn process_instruction(
    program_id: &Pubkey,
    accounts: &[AccountInfo],
    instruction_data: &[u8],
) -> ProgramResult {
    let account_info_iter = &mut accounts.iter();
    let payer = next_account_info(account_info_iter)?;
    let vault_pda = next_account_info(account_info_iter)?;
    let system_program = next_account_info(account_info_iter)?;

    assert_eq!(vault_pda.owner, &system_program::ID);

    let vault_bump_seed = instruction_data[0];
    let vault_seeds = &[b"vault", payer.key.as_ref(), &[vault_bump_seed]];
    let expected_vault_pda = Pubkey::create_program_address(vault_seeds, program_id)?;

    assert_eq!(vault_pda.key, &expected_vault_pda);

    let scoobies = 10000000;
    let vault_size = 16;


Native programs

Some Cartallum CBE programs are native programs, running native machine code that is distributed with the runtime, with well-known program IDs.

Some native programs can be invoked by other programs, but some can only be executed as “top-level” instructions included by off-chain clients in a Transaction.

This crate defines the program IDs for most native programs. Even though some native programs cannot be invoked by other programs, a Cartallum CBE program may need access to their program IDs. For example, a program may need to verify that an ed25519 signature verification instruction was included in the same transaction as its own instruction. For many native programs, this crate also defines enums that represent the instructions they process, and constructors for building the instructions.

Locations of program IDs and instruction constructors are noted in the list below, as well as whether they are invokable by other programs.

While some native programs have been active since the genesis block, others are activated dynamically after a specific slot, and some are not yet active. This documentation does not distinguish which native programs are active on any particular network. The cbe feature status CLI command can help in determining active features.

Native programs important to Cartallum CBE program authors include:


Account information.
The definition of address lookup table accounts.
Hashing with the blake3 hash function.
Utilities for the borsh serialization format.
The latest BPF loader native program.
The original and now deprecated Cartallum CBE BPF loader.
An upgradeable BPF loader native program.
Information about the network’s clock, ticks, slots, etc.
Debug-formatting of account data.
Converting custom error codes to enums.
The Rust-based BPF program entrypoint supported by the latest BPF loader.
The Rust-based BPF program entrypoint supported by the original BPF loader.
Configuration for epochs and slots.
Runtime features.
Calculation of transaction fees.
Hashing with the SHA-256 hash function, and a general Hash type.
A designated address for burning scoobies.
Types for directing the execution of Cartallum CBE programs.
Hashing with the keccak (SHA-3) hash function.
Logging utilities for Rust-based Cartallum CBE programs.
Sequences of Instructions executed within a single transaction.
Definitions for the native CBC token and its fractional scoobies.
Durable transaction nonces.
Cross-program invocation.
The ProgramError type and related definitions.
Basic low-level memory operations.
A C representation of Rust’s Option, used across the FFI boundary for Cartallum CBE program interfaces.
The Pack serialization trait.
Implementations of syscalls used when cbe-program is built for non-SBF targets.
Contains a single utility function for deserializing from bincode.
Cartallum CBE account addresses.
Configuration for network rent.
A trait for sanitizing values and members of over the wire messages.
Defines the ScoobiesError type.
A vector of Cartallum CBE SDK IDs.
Public key recovery from secp256k1 ECDSA signatures.
Integers that serialize to variable size.
Helpers for reading and writing bytes.
Compact serde-encoding of vectors with small length.
A type to hold data for the SlotHashes sysvar.
A type to hold data for the SlotHistory sysvar.
A type to hold data for the StakeHistory sysvar.
Declarations of Cartallum CBE program syscalls.
Instructions and constructors for the system program.
Access to special accounts with dynamically-updated data.


Define the default global allocator.
Define the default global panic handler.
Same as declare_id except that it reports that this ID has been deprecated.
Same as declare_sysvar_id except that it reports that this ID has been deprecated.
Convenience macro to declare a static public key and functions to interact with it.
Declares an ID that implements SysvarId.
Declare the program entrypoint and set up global handlers.
Declare the program entrypoint.
Implements the Sysvar::get method for both SBF and host targets.
Print a message to the log.
Print a message to the log.
Convenience macro to define a static public key.
Convenience macro for doing integer division where the operation’s safety can be checked at compile-time.

Attribute Macros