Crate ttgraph

source ·
Expand description

TTGraph is:

  • A container or database for many different data, which cross-reference each other, forming a graph-like data structure.
  • Typed graph: A collection of multiple types of nodes. Each node hold some private data, and some pointers/edges/references to other nodes.
  • Transactional graph: All operations on the graph are organized by transaction, which means an atomic group of operation is applied at the same time.

TTGraph provides:

  • A convinient container for different types of data, which provides some useful methods to deal with types.
  • A data struct to maintain the connection between nodes. TTGraph create a reflection for all types to track the connection between nodes, named as link. This allows some fancy operations, such as redirect links and maintain bidirectional links.
  • A clean interface to help get rid of some annoying compile errors. The design of transaction tries to prevent having a non-mutable reference and a mutable reference of the same object at the same time, and tries not to get into a maze of lifetimes.
  • TTGraph is originally designed as an Intermediate Representation system for compilers, but its potential is not limited.

TTGraph does not currently provides, but may be improved in the future:

  • Very high performance. Though TTGraph operations are relatively cheap (mostly O(log(n))), it is not a high performance database.
  • Very large capacity. All data are stored in memory.

§Motivational Example

§Typed Node Declaration

Assume there are a few factories, workers and products, the following example use TTGraph to maintain their data.

use ttgraph::*;
use std::collections::HashSet;

#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct FactoryNode{
  name: String,
  workers: HashSet<NodeIndex>,
  products: HashSet<NodeIndex>,
}

#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct WorkerNode{
  name: String,
  factory: NodeIndex,
  produced: Vec<NodeIndex>,
}

#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct ProductNode{
  id: usize
}

Here, a factory have a name, multiple workers and products. name is a data field, which TTGraph does not care about. It can be any type in Rust.

workers and products are links. A link is a connection to another node. TTGraph use NodeIndex to index a node, which implements Copy. If field is one of the following types, it is treated as a link. (Note: types are matched by name in the macros, ttgraph::NodeIndex/NodeIndex/std::collections::Vec::<NodeIndex>/Vec::<ttgraph::NodeIndex> are all acceptable.)

  • Direct link: NodeIndex
  • Vector link: Vec<NodeIndex>
  • Unordered set link: HashSet<NodeIndex>
  • Ordered set link: BTreeSet<NodeIndex>

§Graph and Transaction

Next example shows how to build a graph.

// Use an node_enum to collect all node types together
node_enum!{
  enum Node{
    Factory(FactoryNode),
    Worker(WorkerNode),
    Product(ProductNode),
  }
}

// Create the context
let ctx = Context::new();
// Create a graph of Node
let mut graph = Graph::<Node>::new(&ctx);

// Does some initial operations with a transaction
// Actual type: Transaction::<Node>, <Node> can be inferenced when commited
let mut trans = Transaction::new(&ctx);
let product1 = trans.insert(Node::Product(ProductNode{ id: 1 }));
let product2 = trans.insert(Node::Product(ProductNode{ id: 2 }));
let worker1 = trans.alloc();
let worker2 = trans.alloc();
let factory = trans.insert(Node::Factory(FactoryNode{
  name: "Factory".to_string(),
  workers: HashSet::from([worker1, worker2]),
  products: HashSet::from([product1, product2]),
}));
trans.fill_back(worker1, Node::Worker(WorkerNode{
  name: "Alice".to_string(),
  factory,
  produced: vec![product2],
}));
trans.fill_back(worker2, Node::Worker(WorkerNode{
  name: "Bob".to_string(),
  factory,
  produced: vec![product1],
}));

// Commit the transaction to the graph
graph.commit(trans);

// Get the factory node back
let factory_node = get_node!(graph, Node::Factory, factory).unwrap();
assert_eq!(factory_node.name, "Factory");
assert_eq!(factory_node.workers, HashSet::from([worker1, worker2]));
assert_eq!(factory_node.products, HashSet::from([product1, product2]));

First, the node_enum! macro is used to create a enum to collect all types of nodes. It is a proc_macro instead of proc_macro_derive for extendable syntax in the latter examples. The enum inside of node_enum! will implements trait NodeEnum and can be used in Graph.

node_enum!{
  enum Node{
    Factory(FactoryNode),
    Worker(WorkerNode),
    Product(ProductNode),
  }
}

Then, create a Context and a Graph using that context. The context is used to ensure the NodeIndexes are consistent across all transactions. Graph does not hold a reference to the context, so it is the user’s reponsibility to keep it.

let ctx = Context::new();
let mut graph = Graph::<Node>::new(&ctx);

Next, a Transaction is created using the same context as the graph. After operations are done on the transcations, it can be committed to the graph with method commit. Transaction does not hold a reference to the graph and they have independent lifetime. (Though, it does nothing if a transaction outlives the graph)

let mut trans = Transaction::new(&ctx);
// Do something with trans
graph.commit(trans);

Now we take a closer look on how to build the graph. Product nodes are the simplest, it only have a id. Use insert to add a node into the transaction. It returns a NodeIndex pointing to the new node, which means later we can use product1 and product2 to retrieve the node from the graph.

let product1 = trans.insert(Node::Product(ProductNode{ id: 1 }));
let product2 = trans.insert(Node::Product(ProductNode{ id: 2 }));

Factories and workers have a more complex relationship, as they cross-refenerence each other. That means we cannot make a FactoryNode or a WorkerNode alone. Lucky, TTGraph does operations in transaction, we can first allocate a NodeIndex for the workers with method alloc, then fill the data back with method fill_back. The transaction prevents dangling NodeIndex by checking all allocated nodes are filled back when committed.

let worker1 = trans.alloc();
let worker2 = trans.alloc();
let factory = trans.insert(Node::Factory(FactoryNode{
  name: "Factory".to_string(),
  workers: HashSet::from([worker1, worker2]),
  products: HashSet::from([product1, product2]),
}));
trans.fill_back(worker1, Node::Worker(WorkerNode{
  name: "Alice".to_string(),
  factory,
  produced: vec![product2],
}));
trans.fill_back(worker2, Node::Worker(WorkerNode{
  name: "Bob".to_string(),
  factory,
  produced: vec![product1],
}));

Finally, after committing the transaction to the graph, we have a graph with the nodes described above. We can use NodeIndex to get the node back. get_node! macro is used when the type of the node is previously known, which returns an Option<&TypedNode> to indicate if the node is avaiable.

let factory_node = get_node!(graph, Node::Factory, factory).unwrap();
assert_eq!(factory_node.name, "Factory");
assert_eq!(factory_node.workers, HashSet::from([worker1, worker2]));
assert_eq!(factory_node.products, HashSet::from([product1, product2]));

For more operations, please view the documents on struct Graph and Transaction.

TTGraph supports bidirectional link declaration. In this example, the workers field of Factory and the factory field of Worker is in fact a pair of bidirectional link. We can modify the node_enum! declaration for more supports.

node_enum!{
  enum Node{
    Factory(FactoryNode),
    Worker(WorkerNode),
    Product(ProductNode),
  }
  bidirectional!{
    Factory.workers <-> Worker.factory,
  }
}

let ctx = Context::new();
let mut graph = Graph::<Node>::new(&ctx);

let mut trans = Transaction::new(&ctx);
let product1 = trans.insert(Node::Product(ProductNode{ id: 1 }));
let product2 = trans.insert(Node::Product(ProductNode{ id: 2 }));
let factory = trans.insert(Node::Factory(FactoryNode{
  name: "Factory".to_string(),
  // Here we leave this set empty to demonstrate it can be automatically filled
  workers: HashSet::new(),
  products: HashSet::from([product1, product2]),
}));
let worker1 = trans.insert(Node::Worker(WorkerNode{
  name: "Alice".to_string(),
  factory,
  produced: vec![product2],
}));
let worker2 = trans.insert(Node::Worker(WorkerNode{
  name: "Bob".to_string(),
  factory,
  produced: vec![product1],
}));

graph.commit(trans);

// Get the factory node back
let factory_node = get_node!(graph, Node::Factory, factory).unwrap();
assert_eq!(factory_node.name, "Factory");
assert_eq!(factory_node.workers, HashSet::from([worker1, worker2]));
assert_eq!(factory_node.products, HashSet::from([product1, product2]));

Here, the bidiretional! macro inside of node_enum! macro is used to declare bidirecitonal links.

  • Use variant.field <-> variant.field, to indicate a pair of bidirecitonal links. Note: variant of the enum, not type!
  • bidiretional! is not actually a macro, it can only be used inside of node_enum!

Next, when making the factory node, its workers are simply left empty. However, after commited to the graph, TTGraph automatically adds the bidirectional links into it.

Rules of bidiretional links are:

  • Bidirectional links may be formed between: a pair of NodeIndex, between NodeIndex and Set<NodeIndex>, a pair of Set<NodeIndex>. (Set may be HashSet or BTreeSet, Vec is not supported currently)
  • When a link is added, the opposite side of the bidiretional link is checked. If the bidiretional link is already there, nothing happens. If that link have a place to be added, it is automatially added. Otherwise, it panics for conflict.
  • When a link is removed, the opposite side of the bidiretional link is checked. If the bidiretional link is there, it is removed. Otherwise, since TTGraph does not know if the user removes it on purpose, it is assumed that nothing should happen.
  • NodeIndex field: link can be added if it is NodeIndex::empty(), otherwise it conflicts and panics. Link can be removed if it is not empty, but does not panic if it is.
  • Set<NodeIndex> field: link can always be added into or removed from the set.
  • When modifying existing pairs of bidiretional links, ensure the modification happens in the same transaction to prevent conflict. TTGraph does all other operations before maintaining bidiretional links.

§Get data by name and group

TTGraph supports few operations for type erasure, targeting cases that some typed nodes have some similar fields, and matching the enum for these field is verbose.

Following last example, assume there are two types of workers, robots and humans. They may have very different data, but they both have a name. Now we want to make a name list for all the workers. Typical solution is to match the NodeEnum, but TTGraph gives another solution by getting data by name.

data_ref_by_name method provides an interface to access a data field by its name and type. If the node have that field and the type matches (through std::any::Any::downcast_ref), Some(&Type) is returned, otherwise None is returned.

#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct HumanWorkerNode{
  name: String,
  // ... other data
}
#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct RobotWorkerNode{
  name: String,
  // ... other data
}

node_enum!{
  enum Node{
    Human(HumanWorkerNode),
    Robot(RobotWorkerNode),
    // ... other nodes
  }
}

let ctx = Context::new();
let mut graph = Graph::<Node>::new(&ctx);
// ... building the graph

// idx: NodeIndex, node: &Node
let node = graph.get(idx).unwrap();

// Not so convinient way to get the name
let name = match node {
  Node::Human(human) => Some(&human.name),
  Node::Robot(robot) => Some(&robot.name),
  _ => None,
};

// A simplified solution
// Here, "name" is the field's name
// The "name" field is a String, so this variable is an Option<&str>
let name = node.data_ref_by_name::<String>("name");

Further more, if we want to iterate all workers, skipping all the other nodes, the grouping mechanism in TTGraph can come to use.

Here, the two variant Human and Robot is in the worker group. Use the iter_group method to iterate all nodes within the group.

Notes:

  • Variants can be inside of multiple or none groups.
  • Currently, this method does not provide performance enhancement, as it is only a wrapper on matching the variants according to the group name.
node_enum!{
  enum Node{
    Human(HumanWorkerNode),
    Robot(RobotWorkerNode),
    // ... other nodes
  }
  group!{
    worker{Human, Robot},
  }
}

for (idx, node) in graph.iter_group("worker") {
  let name = node.data_ref_by_name::<String>("name").unwrap();
  // ...
}

Links may be grouped too. Assume workers may produce different kinds of products, and make them into a product group can help iterate through all of them.

Notes:

  • A link field can be inside multiple or none groups. Syntax: #[group(group1, group2, ...)]
  • Yes, its form is inconsitent with node_enum!. The problem is if a struct is inside a macro, the linter (rust-analyzer) fails to show its content. The author personally thinks the group! form is clearer, but does not worth ruining the linter.
#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct HumanWorkerNode{
  name: String,
  #[group(product)]
  cooked: BTreeSet<NodeIndex>,
  #[group(product)]
  maked: BTreeSet<NodeIndex>,
  // ... other data
}
#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct RobotWorkerNode{
  name: String,
  #[group(product)]
  manufactured: BTreeSet<NodeIndex>,
  // ... other data
}

let node = graph.get(idx).unwrap();
for idx in node.get_links_by_group("product") {
  // Now idx binds to all NodeIndex inside the product group
}

Other methods for type erasure are listed in the document of NodeEnum and TypedNode traits.

A node links to other node with a NodeIndex in TTGraph, which is in fact weak typed as any variant in the node enum can be pointed by the NodeIndex.

For debug reason, an optional link type check can be added with link_type!{ #var.#field : #var, ... }. When a transaction is committed, all changes which be checked. Panics if a NodeIndex points to the wrong enum variant.

Link type can also be a group. If the name of a group and the name of a variant conflicts, it is treated as a group.

Feature debug is required. Otherwise all checks are skipped.

use ttgraph::*;
use std::collections::HashSet;
#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct FactoryNode{
 name: String,
 workers: HashSet<NodeIndex>,
}
#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct HumanWorkerNode{
  name: String,
  factory: NodeIndex,
}
#[derive(TypedNode)]
struct RobotWorkerNode{
  name: String,
  factory: NodeIndex,
}
node_enum!{
  enum Node{
    Factory(FactoryNode),
    Human(HumanWorkerNode),
    Robot(RobotWorkerNode),
  }
  link_type!{
    Factory.workers : {Human, Robot},
    Human.factory: Factory,
    Robot.factory: Factory,
  }
}

In this example, workers of a factory can link to human or robot, while the factory field of human and robot must link to a factory.

§Working In Progress

  • Graph creation macro. A sub-language to simplify great amount of alloc_node, fill_back_node and new_node calls.
  • Graph transition. A way to conviently transit Graph<NodeEnumA> to Graph<NodeEnumB>, if NodeEnumA and NodeEnumB have a lot of common variants.
  • Check when commit. A way to add runtime check when commit.

Modules§

Macros§

  • Get a node from the graph, assume it is $var variant of the NodeEnum. Returns Option<&NodeType>
  • Iterate a type of nodes from the graph, assume they are $var variant of the NodeEnum. Returns impl Iterator<Item = (NodeIndex, &NodeType)>
  • Use the mutate method of the transaction, assume the node is $var variant of the NodeEnum. Panics if the enum does not match.
  • Collect TypedNodes together to form an enum
  • Use the update method of the transaction, assume the node is $var variant of the NodeEnum. Panics if the enum does not match.

Structs§

  • Context for typed graph Transactions and graph must have the same context to ensure the correctness of NodeIndex
  • A graph with typed nodes The graph can only by modified by commiting a transaction, which avoids mutable borrow of the graph
  • A struct to hold errors found in link type check
  • The side effect of modify_node, intent to be used by macros
  • The index of a node, which implements Copy. Note: The index is very independent to the Graph, which does not check if it is realy pointing to a node in the graph.
  • The transaction to modify a Graph. It is a operation recorder which have independent lifetime than the graph and does not hold reference to the graph. The transaction and the graph should have been created from the same Context to ensure correctness.

Enums§

Traits§

  • A helper trait to declare a enum of all typed nodes Intented to be automatically generated, may be unstable.
  • A trait intended to be used in macros
  • A helper trait for the graph to trace all links in the nodes Intented to be automatically derived, may be unstable.

Type Aliases§

Derive Macros§

  • Automatically implements TypedNode trait for a struct. Helpep attributes: