[][src]Trait tower::layer::Layer

pub trait Layer<S> {
    type Service;
    fn layer(&self, inner: S) -> Self::Service;

Decorates a Service, transforming either the request or the response.

Often, many of the pieces needed for writing network applications can be reused across multiple services. The Layer trait can be used to write reusable components that can be applied to very different kinds of services; for example, it can be applied to services operating on different protocols, and to both the client and server side of a network transaction.


Take request logging as an example:

pub struct LogLayer {
    target: &'static str,

impl<S> Layer<S> for LogLayer {
    type Service = LogService<S>;

    fn layer(&self, service: S) -> Self::Service {
        LogService {
            target: self.target,

// This service implements the Log behavior
pub struct LogService<S> {
    target: &'static str,
    service: S,

impl<S, Request> Service<Request> for LogService<S>
    S: Service<Request>,
    Request: fmt::Debug,
    type Response = S::Response;
    type Error = S::Error;
    type Future = S::Future;

    fn poll_ready(&mut self, cx: &mut Context<'_>) -> Poll<Result<(), Self::Error>> {

    fn call(&mut self, request: Request) -> Self::Future {
        // Insert log statement here or other functionality
        println!("request = {:?}, target = {:?}", request, self.target);

The above log implementation is decoupled from the underlying protocol and is also decoupled from client or server concerns. In other words, the same log middleware could be used in either a client or a server.

Associated Types

type Service

The wrapped service

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Required methods

fn layer(&self, inner: S) -> Self::Service

Wrap the given service with the middleware, returning a new service that has been decorated with the middleware.

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impl<P, S> Layer<S> for RetryLayer<P> where
    P: Clone

type Service = Retry<P, S>

impl<S> Layer<S> for Identity[src]

Decorates a Service, transforming either the request or the response.

type Service = S

impl<S> Layer<S> for ConcurrencyLimitLayer[src]

type Service = ConcurrencyLimit<S>

impl<S> Layer<S> for RateLimitLayer[src]

type Service = RateLimit<S>

impl<S> Layer<S> for LoadShedLayer[src]

type Service = LoadShed<S>

impl<S> Layer<S> for TimeoutLayer[src]

type Service = Timeout<S>

impl<S, Inner, Outer> Layer<S> for Stack<Inner, Outer> where
    Inner: Layer<S>,
    Outer: Layer<<Inner as Layer<S>>::Service>, 

type Service = <Outer as Layer<<Inner as Layer<S>>::Service>>::Service

impl<S, Request> Layer<S> for BufferLayer<Request> where
    Request: Send + 'static,
    S: Service<Request> + Send + 'static,
    <S as Service<Request>>::Future: Send,
    <S as Service<Request>>::Error: Into<Box<dyn Error + 'static + Sync + Send>>,
    <S as Service<Request>>::Error: Send,
    <S as Service<Request>>::Error: Sync

type Service = Buffer<S, Request>

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