Crate starky

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A FRI-based STARK implementation over the Goldilocks field, with support for recursive proof verification through the plonky2 SNARK backend.

This library is intended to provide all the necessary tools to prove, verify, and recursively verify STARK statements. While the library is tailored for a system with a single STARK, it also is flexible enough to support a multi-STARK system, i.e. a system of independent STARK statements possibly sharing common values. See section below for more information on how to define such a system.

§Defining a STARK statement

A STARK system is configured by a StarkConfig defining all the parameters to be used when generating proofs associated to the statement. How constraints should be defined over the STARK trace is defined through the Stark trait, that takes a StarkEvaluationFrame of two consecutive rows and a list of public inputs.

§Example: Fibonacci sequence

To build a STARK for the modified Fibonacci sequence starting with two user-provided values x0 and x1, one can do the following:

// Imports all basic types.
use plonky2::field::extension::{Extendable, FieldExtension};
use plonky2::field::packed::PackedField;
use plonky2::field::polynomial::PolynomialValues;
use plonky2::hash::hash_types::RichField;

// Imports to define the constraints of our STARK.
use starky::constraint_consumer::{ConstraintConsumer, RecursiveConstraintConsumer};
use starky::evaluation_frame::{StarkEvaluationFrame, StarkFrame};
use starky::stark::Stark;

// Imports to define the recursive constraints of our STARK.
use plonky2::iop::ext_target::ExtensionTarget;
use plonky2::plonk::circuit_builder::CircuitBuilder;

pub struct FibonacciStark<F: RichField + Extendable<D>, const D: usize> {
    num_rows: usize,
    _phantom: PhantomData<F>,

// Define witness generation.
impl<F: RichField + Extendable<D>, const D: usize> FibonacciStark<F, D> {
    // The first public input is `x0`.
    const PI_INDEX_X0: usize = 0;
    // The second public input is `x1`.
    const PI_INDEX_X1: usize = 1;
    // The third public input is the second element of the last row,
    // which should be equal to the `num_rows`-th Fibonacci number.
    const PI_INDEX_RES: usize = 2;

    /// Generate the trace using `x0, x1, 0` as initial state values.
    fn generate_trace(&self, x0: F, x1: F) -> Vec<PolynomialValues<F>> {
        let mut trace_rows = (0..self.num_rows)
            .scan([x0, x1, F::ZERO], |acc, _| {
                let tmp = *acc;
                acc[0] = tmp[1];
                acc[1] = tmp[0] + tmp[1];
                acc[2] = tmp[2] + F::ONE;

        // Transpose the row-wise trace for the prover.

// Define constraints.
const COLUMNS: usize = 3;
const PUBLIC_INPUTS: usize = 3;

impl<F: RichField + Extendable<D>, const D: usize> Stark<F, D> for FibonacciStark<F, D> {
    type EvaluationFrame<FE, P, const D2: usize> = StarkFrame<P, P::Scalar, COLUMNS, PUBLIC_INPUTS>
        FE: FieldExtension<D2, BaseField = F>,
        P: PackedField<Scalar = FE>;

    type EvaluationFrameTarget =
        StarkFrame<ExtensionTarget<D>, ExtensionTarget<D>, COLUMNS, PUBLIC_INPUTS>;

    // Define this STARK's constraints.
    fn eval_packed_generic<FE, P, const D2: usize>(
        vars: &Self::EvaluationFrame<FE, P, D2>,
        yield_constr: &mut ConstraintConsumer<P>,
    ) where
        FE: FieldExtension<D2, BaseField = F>,
        P: PackedField<Scalar = FE>,
        let local_values = vars.get_local_values();
        let next_values = vars.get_next_values();
        let public_inputs = vars.get_public_inputs();

        // Check public inputs.
        yield_constr.constraint_first_row(local_values[0] - public_inputs[Self::PI_INDEX_X0]);
        yield_constr.constraint_first_row(local_values[1] - public_inputs[Self::PI_INDEX_X1]);
        yield_constr.constraint_last_row(local_values[1] - public_inputs[Self::PI_INDEX_RES]);

        // Enforce the Fibonacci transition constraints.
        // x0' <- x1
        yield_constr.constraint_transition(next_values[0] - local_values[1]);
        // x1' <- x0 + x1
        yield_constr.constraint_transition(next_values[1] - local_values[0] - local_values[1]);

    // Define the constraints to recursively verify this STARK.
    fn eval_ext_circuit(
        builder: &mut CircuitBuilder<F, D>,
        vars: &Self::EvaluationFrameTarget,
        yield_constr: &mut RecursiveConstraintConsumer<F, D>,
    ) {
        let local_values = vars.get_local_values();
        let next_values = vars.get_next_values();
        let public_inputs = vars.get_public_inputs();

        // Check public inputs.
        let pis_constraints = [
            builder.sub_extension(local_values[0], public_inputs[Self::PI_INDEX_X0]),
            builder.sub_extension(local_values[1], public_inputs[Self::PI_INDEX_X1]),
            builder.sub_extension(local_values[1], public_inputs[Self::PI_INDEX_RES]),

        yield_constr.constraint_first_row(builder, pis_constraints[0]);
        yield_constr.constraint_first_row(builder, pis_constraints[1]);
        yield_constr.constraint_last_row(builder, pis_constraints[2]);

        // Enforce the Fibonacci transition constraints.
        // x0' <- x1
        let first_col_constraint = builder.sub_extension(next_values[0], local_values[1]);
        yield_constr.constraint_transition(builder, first_col_constraint);
        // x1' <- x0 + x1
        let second_col_constraint = {
            let tmp = builder.sub_extension(next_values[1], local_values[0]);
            builder.sub_extension(tmp, local_values[1])
        yield_constr.constraint_transition(builder, second_col_constraint);

    fn constraint_degree(&self) -> usize {

One can then instantiate a new FibonacciStark instance, generate an associated STARK trace, and generate a proof for it.

const D: usize = 2;
const CONFIG: StarkConfig = StarkConfig::standard_fast_config();
type C = PoseidonGoldilocksConfig;
type F = <C as GenericConfig<D>>::F;
type S = FibonacciStark<F, D>;

fn main() {
    let num_rows = 1 << 10;
    let x0 = F::from_canonical_u32(2);
    let x1 = F::from_canonical_u32(7);

    let public_inputs = [x0, x1, fibonacci(num_rows - 1, x0, x1)];
    let stark = FibonacciStark::<F, D>::new(num_rows);
    let trace = stark.generate_trace(public_inputs[0], public_inputs[1]);

    let proof = prove::<F, C, S, D>(
        &mut TimingTree::default(),
    ).expect("We should have a valid proof!");

    verify_stark_proof(stark, proof, &CONFIG)
        .expect("We should be able to verify this proof!")