# Crate rust_decimal

Expand description

A Decimal number implementation written in pure Rust suitable for financial calculations that require significant integral and fractional digits with no round-off errors.

The binary representation consists of a 96 bit integer number, a scaling factor used to specify the decimal fraction and a 1 bit sign. Because of this representation, trailing zeros are preserved and may be exposed when in string form. These can be truncated using the normalize or round_dp functions.

### Installing

Using cargo-edit:

In addition, if you would like to use the optimized macro for convenient creation of decimals:

Alternatively, you can edit your Cargo.toml directly and run cargo update:

[dependencies]
rust_decimal = "1.29"
rust_decimal_macros = "1.29"

### Usage

Decimal numbers can be created in a few distinct ways. The easiest and most efficient method of creating a Decimal is to use the procedural macro within the rust_decimal_macros crate:

// Procedural macros need importing directly
use rust_decimal_macros::dec;

let number = dec!(-1.23) + dec!(3.45);
assert_eq!(number, dec!(2.22));
assert_eq!(number.to_string(), "2.22");

Alternatively you can also use one of the Decimal number convenience functions (see the docs for more details):

// Using the prelude can help importing trait based functions (e.g. core::str::FromStr).
use rust_decimal::prelude::*;

// Using an integer followed by the decimal points
let scaled = Decimal::new(202, 2);
assert_eq!("2.02", scaled.to_string());

// From a 128 bit integer
let balance = Decimal::from_i128_with_scale(5_897_932_384_626_433_832, 2);
assert_eq!("58979323846264338.32", balance.to_string());

// From a string representation
let from_string = Decimal::from_str("2.02").unwrap();
assert_eq!("2.02", from_string.to_string());

// From a string representation in a different base
assert_eq!("65535", from_string_base16.to_string());

// From scientific notation
let sci = Decimal::from_scientific("9.7e-7").unwrap();
assert_eq!("0.00000097", sci.to_string());

// Using the `Into` trait
let my_int: Decimal = 3_i32.into();
assert_eq!("3", my_int.to_string());

// Using the raw decimal representation
let pi = Decimal::from_parts(1_102_470_952, 185_874_565, 1_703_060_790, false, 28);
assert_eq!("3.1415926535897932384626433832", pi.to_string());

Once you have instantiated your Decimal number you can perform calculations with it just like any other number:

use rust_decimal::prelude::*;
use rust_decimal_macros::dec;

let amount = dec!(25.12);
let tax_percentage = dec!(0.085);
let total = amount + (amount * tax_percentage).round_dp(2);
assert_eq!(total, dec!(27.26));

### Features

Behavior / Functionality

Database

Serde

#### borsh

Enables Borsh serialization for Decimal.

#### c-repr

Forces Decimal to use [repr(C)]. The corresponding target layout is 128 bit aligned.

#### db-postgres

Enables a PostgreSQL communication module. It allows for reading and writing the Decimal type by transparently serializing/deserializing into the NUMERIC data type within PostgreSQL.

#### db-tokio-postgres

Enables the tokio postgres module allowing for async communication with PostgreSQL.

#### db-diesel-postgres

Enable diesel PostgreSQL support. By default, this enables version 1.4 of diesel. If you wish to use the 2.0 version of diesel then you can do so by using the feature db-diesel2-postgres. Please note, if both features are enabled then version 2 will supersede version 1.

#### db-diesel-mysql

Enable diesel MySQL support. By default, this enables version 1.4 of diesel. If you wish to use the 2.0 version of diesel then you can do so by using the feature db-diesel2-mysql. Please note, if both features are enabled then version 2 will supersede version 1.

#### legacy-ops

Warning: This is deprecated and will be removed from a future versions.

As of 1.10 the algorithms used to perform basic operations have changed which has benefits of significant speed improvements. To maintain backwards compatibility this can be opted out of by enabling the legacy-ops feature.

#### maths

The maths feature enables additional complex mathematical functions such as pow, ln, enf, exp etc. Documentation detailing the additional functions can be found on the MathematicalOps trait.

Please note that ln and log10 will panic on invalid input with checked_ln and checked_log10 the preferred functions to curb against this. When the maths feature was first developed the library would instead return 0 on invalid input. To re-enable this non-panicking behavior, please use the feature: maths-nopanic.

#### ndarray

Enables arithmetic operations using ndarray on arrays of Decimal.

#### rand

Implements rand::distributions::Distribution<Decimal> to allow the creation of random instances.

Note: When using rand::Rng trait to generate a decimal between a range of two other decimals, the scale of the randomly-generated decimal will be the same as the scale of the input decimals (or, if the inputs have different scales, the higher of the two).

#### rkyv

Enables rkyv serialization for Decimal. Supports rkyv’s safe API when the rkyv-safe feature is enabled as well.

#### rocket-traits

Enable support for Rocket forms by implementing the FromFormField trait.

#### rust-fuzz

Enable rust-fuzz support by implementing the Arbitrary trait.

#### serde-float

Note: it is recommended to use the serde-with-* features for greater control. This allows configurability at the data level.

Enable this so that JSON serialization of Decimal types are sent as a float instead of a string (default).

e.g. with this turned on, JSON serialization would output:

{
"value": 1.234
}

#### serde-str

Note: it is recommended to use the serde-with-* features for greater control. This allows configurability at the data level.

This is typically useful for bincode or csv like implementations.

Since bincode does not specify type information, we need to ensure that a type hint is provided in order to correctly be able to deserialize. Enabling this feature on its own will force deserialization to use deserialize_str instead of deserialize_any.

If, for some reason, you also have serde-float enabled then this will use deserialize_f64 as a type hint. Because converting to f64 loses precision, it’s highly recommended that you do NOT enable this feature when working with bincode. That being said, this will only use 8 bytes so is slightly more efficient in terms of storage size.

#### serde-arbitrary-precision

Note: it is recommended to use the serde-with-* features for greater control. This allows configurability at the data level.

This is used primarily with serde_json and consequently adds it as a “weak dependency”. This supports the arbitrary_precision feature inside serde_json when parsing decimals.

This is recommended when parsing “float” looking data as it will prevent data loss.

#### serde-with-float

Enable this to access the module for serializing Decimal types to a float. This can be use in struct definitions like so:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct FloatExample {
#[serde(with = "rust_decimal::serde::float")]
value: Decimal,
}
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct OptionFloatExample {
#[serde(with = "rust_decimal::serde::float_option")]
value: Option<Decimal>,
}

#### serde-with-str

Enable this to access the module for serializing Decimal types to a String. This can be use in struct definitions like so:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct StrExample {
#[serde(with = "rust_decimal::serde::str")]
value: Decimal,
}
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct OptionStrExample {
#[serde(with = "rust_decimal::serde::str_option")]
value: Option<Decimal>,
}

#### serde-with-arbitrary-precision

Enable this to access the module for serializing Decimal types to a String. This can be use in struct definitions like so:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct ArbitraryExample {
#[serde(with = "rust_decimal::serde::arbitrary_precision")]
value: Decimal,
}
#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct OptionArbitraryExample {
#[serde(with = "rust_decimal::serde::arbitrary_precision_option")]
value: Option<Decimal>,
}

#### std

Enable std library support. This is enabled by default, however in the future will be opt in. For now, to support no_std libraries, this crate can be compiled with --no-default-features.

### Minimum Rust Compiler Version

The current minimum compiler version is 1.60.0 which was released on 2022-04-07.

This library maintains support for rust compiler versions that are 4 minor versions away from the current stable rust compiler version. For example, if the current stable compiler version is 1.50.0 then we will guarantee support up to and including 1.46.0. Of note, we will only update the minimum supported version if and when required.

## Modules

• A convenience module appropriate for glob imports (use rust_decimal::prelude::*;).
• Serde specific functionality to customize how a decimal is serialized/deserialized (serde_with)

## Structs

• Decimal represents a 128 bit representation of a fixed-precision decimal number. The finite set of values of type Decimal are of the form m / 10e, where m is an integer such that -296 < m < 296, and e is an integer between 0 and 28 inclusive.

## Enums

• Error type for the library.
• RoundingStrategy represents the different rounding strategies that can be used by round_dp_with_strategy.

## Traits

• Trait exposing various mathematical operations that can be applied using a Decimal. This is only present when the maths feature has been enabled.

## Type Definitions

• Shortcut for core::result::Result<T, rust_decimal::Error>. Useful to distinguish between rust_decimal and std types.