# [−][src]Struct rstar::RTree

An n-dimensional r-tree data structure.

# R-Trees

R-Trees are data structures containing multi-dimensional objects like points, rectangles or polygons. They are optimized for retrieving the nearest neighbor at any point.

R-trees can efficiently find answers to queries like "Find the nearest point of a polygon",
"Find all police stations within a rectangle" or "Find the 10 nearest restaurants, sorted
by their distances". Compared to a naive implementation for these scenarios that runs
in `O(n)`

for `n`

inserted elements, r-trees reduce this time to `O(log(n))`

.

However, creating an r-tree is time consuming
and runs in `O(n * log(n))`

. Thus, r-trees are suited best if many queries and only few
insertions are made. Also, rstar supports bulk loading,
which cuts down the constant factors when creating an r-tree significantly compared to
sequential insertions.

R-trees are also *dynamic*, thus, points can be inserted and removed even if the tree
has been created before.

## Partitioning heuristics

The inserted objects are internally partitioned into several boxes which should have small
overlap and volume. This is done heuristically. While the originally proposed heuristic focused
on fast insertion operations, the resulting r-trees were often suboptimally structured. Another
heuristic, called `R*-tree`

(r-star-tree), was proposed to improve the tree structure at the cost of
longer insertion operations and is currently the crate's only implemented
insertion strategy.

## Further reading

For more information refer to the wikipedia article.

# Usage

The items inserted into an r-tree must implement the RTreeObject trait. To support nearest neighbor queries, implement the PointDistance trait. Some useful geometric primitives that implement the above traits can be found in the primitives module.

## Example

use rstar::RTree; let mut tree = RTree::new(); tree.insert([0.1, 0.0f32]); tree.insert([0.2, 0.1]); tree.insert([0.3, 0.0]); assert_eq!(tree.nearest_neighbor(&[0.4, -0.1]), Some(&[0.3, 0.0])); tree.remove(&[0.3, 0.0]); assert_eq!(tree.nearest_neighbor(&[0.4, 0.3]), Some(&[0.2, 0.1])); assert_eq!(tree.size(), 2); // &RTree implements IntoIterator! for point in &tree { println!("Tree contains a point {:?}", point); }

## Supported point types

All types implementing the Point trait can be used as underlying point type. By default, fixed size arrays can be used as points.

## Type Parameters

`T`

: The type of objects stored in the r-tree.`Params`

: Compile time parameters that change the r-trees internal layout. Refer to the RTreeParams trait for more information.

## Defining methods generic over r-trees

If a library defines a method that should be generic over the r-tree type signature, make sure to include both type parameters like this:

pub fn generic_rtree_function<T, Params>(tree: &mut RTree<T, Params>) where T: RTreeObject, Params: RTreeParams { // ... }

Otherwise, any user of `generic_rtree_function`

would be forced to use
a tree with default parameters.

# Runtime and Performance

The runtime of query operations (e.g. `nearest neighbor`

or `contains`

) is usually
`O(log(n))`

, where `n`

refers to the number of elements contained in the r-tree.
A naive sequential algorithm would take `O(n)`

time. However, r-trees incur higher
build up times: inserting an element into an r-tree costs `O(log(n))`

time.

## Bulk loading

In many scenarios, insertion is only done once for many points. In this case,
bulk_load will be considerably faster. Its total run time
is still `O(log(n))`

.

## Element distribution

The tree's performance heavily relies on the spatial distribution of its elements. Best performance is achieved if:

- No element is inserted more than once
- The overlapping area of elements should be as small a possible.

For the edge case that all elements are overlapping (e.g, one and the same element
is contained `n`

times), the performance of most operations usually degrades to `O(n)`

.

# (De)Serialization

Enable the `serde`

feature for Serde support.

## Implementations

`impl<T> RTree<T> where`

T: RTreeObject,

[src]

T: RTreeObject,

`pub fn new() -> Self`

[src]

Creates a new, empty r-tree.

The created r-tree is configured with default parameters.

`pub fn bulk_load(elements: Vec<T>) -> Self`

[src]

Creates a new r-tree with some elements already inserted.

This method should be the preferred way for creating r-trees. It both runs faster and yields an r-tree with better internal structure that improves query performance.

This method implements the overlap minimizing top down bulk loading algorithm as described in this paper.

# Runtime

Bulk loading runs in `O(n * log(n))`

, where `n`

is the number of loaded
elements.

`impl<T, Params> RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject,

[src]

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject,

`pub fn new_with_params() -> Self`

[src]

Creates a new, empty r-tree.

The tree's compile time parameters must be specified. Refer to the RTreeParams trait for more information and a usage example.

`pub fn bulk_load_with_params(elements: Vec<T>) -> Self`

[src]

Creates a new r-tree with some given elements and configurable parameters.

For more information refer to bulk_load and RTreeParameters.

`pub fn size(&self) -> usize`

[src]

Returns the number of objects in an r-tree.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let mut tree = RTree::new(); assert_eq!(tree.size(), 0); tree.insert([0.0, 1.0, 2.0]); assert_eq!(tree.size(), 1); tree.remove(&[0.0, 1.0, 2.0]); assert_eq!(tree.size(), 0);

`pub fn iter(&self) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectAllFunc>`

[src]

Returns an iterator over all elements contained in the tree.

The order in which the elements are returned is not specified.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![[0.0, 0.1], [0.3, 0.2], [0.4, 0.2]]); for point in tree.iter() { println!("This tree contains point {:?}", point); }

`pub fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectAllFunc>`

[src]

Returns an iterator over all mutable elements contained in the tree.

The order in which the elements are returned is not specified.

*Note*: It is a logic error to change an inserted item's position or dimensions. This
method is primarily meant for own implementations of RTreeObject
which can contain arbitrary additional data.
If the position or location of an inserted object need to change, you will need to [remove]
and reinsert it.

`pub fn locate_in_envelope(`

&self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFunction<T>>

[src]

&self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFunction<T>>

Returns all elements contained in an Envelope.

Usually, an envelope is an axis aligned bounding box. This method can be used to get all elements that are fully contained within an envelope.

# Example

use rstar::{RTree, AABB}; let mut tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![ [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0], [1.0, 1.0] ]); let half_unit_square = AABB::from_corners([0.0, 0.0], [0.5, 1.0]); let unit_square = AABB::from_corners([0.0, 0.0], [1.0, 1.0]); let elements_in_half_unit_square = tree.locate_in_envelope(&half_unit_square); let elements_in_unit_square = tree.locate_in_envelope(&unit_square); assert_eq!(elements_in_half_unit_square.count(), 2); assert_eq!(elements_in_unit_square.count(), 3);

`pub fn locate_in_envelope_mut(`

&mut self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFunction<T>>

[src]

&mut self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFunction<T>>

Mutable variant of locate_in_envelope.

`pub fn locate_in_envelope_intersecting(`

&self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFuncIntersecting<T>>

[src]

&self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFuncIntersecting<T>>

Returns all elements whose envelope intersects a given envelope.

Any element fully contained within an envelope is also returned by this method. Two envelopes that "touch" each other (e.g. by sharing only a common corner) are also considered to intersect. Usually, an envelope is an axis aligned bounding box. This method will return all elements whose AABB has some common area with a given AABB.

# Example

use rstar::{RTree, AABB}; use rstar::primitives::Rectangle; let left_piece = AABB::from_corners([0.0, 0.0], [0.4, 1.0]); let right_piece = AABB::from_corners([0.6, 0.0], [1.0, 1.0]); let middle_piece = AABB::from_corners([0.25, 0.0], [0.75, 1.0]); let mut tree = RTree::<Rectangle<_>>::bulk_load(vec![ left_piece.into(), right_piece.into(), middle_piece.into(), ]); let elements_intersecting_left_piece = tree.locate_in_envelope_intersecting(&left_piece); // The left piece should not intersect the right piece! assert_eq!(elements_intersecting_left_piece.count(), 2); let elements_intersecting_middle = tree.locate_in_envelope_intersecting(&middle_piece); // Only the middle piece intersects all pieces within the tree assert_eq!(elements_intersecting_middle.count(), 3); let large_piece = AABB::from_corners([-100., -100.], [100., 100.]); let elements_intersecting_large_piece = tree.locate_in_envelope_intersecting(&large_piece); // Any element that is fully contained should also be returned: assert_eq!(elements_intersecting_large_piece.count(), 3);

`pub fn locate_in_envelope_intersecting_mut(`

&mut self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFuncIntersecting<T>>

[src]

&mut self,

envelope: &T::Envelope

) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectInEnvelopeFuncIntersecting<T>>

Mutable variant of locate_in_envelope_intersecting

`pub fn locate_with_selection_function<S: SelectionFunction<T>>(`

&self,

selection_function: S

) -> impl Iterator<Item = &T>

[src]

&self,

selection_function: S

) -> impl Iterator<Item = &T>

Locates elements in the r-tree defined by a selection function.

Refer to the documentation of `SelectionFunction`

for
more information.

Usually, other `locate`

methods should cover most common use cases. This method is only required
in more specific situations.

`pub fn locate_with_selection_function_mut<S: SelectionFunction<T>>(`

&mut self,

selection_function: S

) -> impl Iterator<Item = &mut T>

[src]

&mut self,

selection_function: S

) -> impl Iterator<Item = &mut T>

Mutable variant of `locate_with_selection_function`

.

`pub fn intersection_candidates_with_other_tree<'a, U>(`

&'a self,

other: &'a RTree<U>

) -> IntersectionIterator<T, U> where

U: RTreeObject<Envelope = T::Envelope>,

[src]

&'a self,

other: &'a RTree<U>

) -> IntersectionIterator<T, U> where

U: RTreeObject<Envelope = T::Envelope>,

Gets all possible intersecting objects of this and another tree.

This will return all objects whose *envelopes* intersect. No geometric intersection
checking is performed.

`pub fn root(&self) -> &ParentNode<T>`

[src]

Returns the tree's root node.

Usually, you will not require to call this method. However, for debugging purposes or for advanced algorithms, knowledge about the tree's internal structure may be required. For these cases, this method serves as an entry point.

`pub fn remove_with_selection_function<F>(&mut self, function: F) -> Option<T> where`

F: SelectionFunction<T>,

[src]

F: SelectionFunction<T>,

Removes and returns a single element from the tree. The element to remove is specified
by a `SelectionFunction`

.

See also: `remove`

, `remove_at_point`

`impl<T, Params> RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RTreeParams,

T: PointDistance,

[src]

Params: RTreeParams,

T: PointDistance,

`pub fn locate_at_point(`

&self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<&T>

[src]

&self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<&T>

Returns a single object that covers a given point.

Method contains_point is used to determine if a tree element contains the given point.

If multiple elements contain the given point, any of them is returned.

`pub fn locate_at_point_mut(`

&mut self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<&mut T>

[src]

&mut self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<&mut T>

Mutable variant of locate_at_point.

`pub fn locate_all_at_point(`

&self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectAtPointFunction<T>>

[src]

&self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectAtPointFunction<T>>

Locate all elements containing a given point.

Method contains_point is used to determine if a tree element contains the given point.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; use rstar::primitives::Rectangle; let tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![ Rectangle::from_corners([0.0, 0.0], [2.0, 2.0]), Rectangle::from_corners([1.0, 1.0], [3.0, 3.0]) ]); assert_eq!(tree.locate_all_at_point(&[1.5, 1.5]).count(), 2); assert_eq!(tree.locate_all_at_point(&[0.0, 0.0]).count(), 1); assert_eq!(tree.locate_all_at_point(&[-1., 0.0]).count(), 0);

`pub fn locate_all_at_point_mut(`

&mut self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectAtPointFunction<T>>

[src]

&mut self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> SelectionIteratorMut<'a, T, SelectAtPointFunction<T>>

Mutable variant of locate_all_at_point.

`pub fn remove_at_point(`

&mut self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<T>

[src]

&mut self,

point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<T>

Removes an element containing a given point.

The removed element, if any, is returned. If multiple elements cover the given point, only one of them is removed and returned.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; use rstar::primitives::Rectangle; let mut tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![ Rectangle::from_corners([0.0, 0.0], [2.0, 2.0]), Rectangle::from_corners([1.0, 1.0], [3.0, 3.0]) ]); assert!(tree.remove_at_point(&[1.5, 1.5]).is_some()); assert!(tree.remove_at_point(&[1.5, 1.5]).is_some()); assert!(tree.remove_at_point(&[1.5, 1.5]).is_none());

`impl<T, Params> RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject + PartialEq,

[src]

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject + PartialEq,

`pub fn contains(&self, t: &T) -> bool`

[src]

Returns `true`

if a given element is equal (`==`

) to an element in the
r-tree.

This method will only work correctly if two equal elements also have the same envelope.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let mut tree = RTree::new(); assert!(!tree.contains(&[0.0, 2.0])); tree.insert([0.0, 2.0]); assert!(tree.contains(&[0.0, 2.0]));

`pub fn remove(&mut self, t: &T) -> Option<T>`

[src]

Removes and returns an element of the r-tree equal (`==`

) to a given element.

If multiple elements equal to the given elements are contained in the tree, only one of them is removed and returned.

This method will only work correctly if two equal elements also have the same envelope.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let mut tree = RTree::new(); tree.insert([0.0, 2.0]); // The element can be inserted twice just fine tree.insert([0.0, 2.0]); assert!(tree.remove(&[0.0, 2.0]).is_some()); assert!(tree.remove(&[0.0, 2.0]).is_some()); assert!(tree.remove(&[0.0, 2.0]).is_none());

`impl<T, Params> RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RTreeParams,

T: PointDistance,

[src]

Params: RTreeParams,

T: PointDistance,

`pub fn nearest_neighbor(`

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<&T>

[src]

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<&T>

Returns the nearest neighbor for a given point.

The distance is calculated by calling PointDistance::distance_2

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![ [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0], ]); assert_eq!(tree.nearest_neighbor(&[-1., 0.0]), Some(&[0.0, 0.0])); assert_eq!(tree.nearest_neighbor(&[0.0, 2.0]), Some(&[0.0, 1.0]));

`pub fn locate_within_distance(`

&self,

query_point: <T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point,

max_squared_radius: <<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point as Point>::Scalar

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectWithinDistanceFunction<T>>

[src]

&self,

query_point: <T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point,

max_squared_radius: <<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point as Point>::Scalar

) -> SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectWithinDistanceFunction<T>>

Returns all elements of the tree within a certain distance.

The elements may be returned in any order. Each returned element will have a squared distance less or equal to the given squared distance.

This method makes use of distance_2_if_less_or_equal. If performance is critical and the distance calculation to the object is fast, overwriting this function may be beneficial.

`pub fn nearest_neighbor_iter(`

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> impl Iterator<Item = &T>

[src]

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> impl Iterator<Item = &T>

Returns all elements of the tree sorted by their distance to a given point.

# Runtime

Every `next()`

call runs in `O(log(n))`

. Creating the iterator runs in
`O(log(n))`

.
The r-tree documentation contains more information about
r-tree performance.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![ [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0], ]); let nearest_neighbors = tree.nearest_neighbor_iter(&[0.5, 0.0]).collect::<Vec<_>>(); assert_eq!(nearest_neighbors, vec![&[0.0, 0.0], &[0.0, 1.0]]);

`pub fn nearest_neighbor_iter_with_distance(`

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> impl Iterator<Item = (&T, <<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point as Point>::Scalar)>

[src]

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> impl Iterator<Item = (&T, <<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point as Point>::Scalar)>

Please use nearest_neighbor_iter_with_distance_2 instead

Returns `(element, distance^2)`

tuples of the tree sorted by their distance to a given point.

The distance is calculated by calling PointDistance::distance_2.

`pub fn nearest_neighbor_iter_with_distance_2(`

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> impl Iterator<Item = (&T, <<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point as Point>::Scalar)>

[src]

&self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> impl Iterator<Item = (&T, <<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point as Point>::Scalar)>

Returns `(element, distance^2)`

tuples of the tree sorted by their distance to a given point.

The distance is calculated by calling PointDistance::distance_2.

`pub fn pop_nearest_neighbor(`

&mut self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<T>

[src]

&mut self,

query_point: &<T::Envelope as Envelope>::Point

) -> Option<T>

Removes the nearest neighbor for a given point and returns it.

The distance is calculated by calling PointDistance::distance_2.

# Example

use rstar::RTree; let mut tree = RTree::bulk_load(vec![ [0.0, 0.0], [0.0, 1.0], ]); assert_eq!(tree.pop_nearest_neighbor(&[0.0, 0.0]), Some([0.0, 0.0])); assert_eq!(tree.pop_nearest_neighbor(&[0.0, 0.0]), Some([0.0, 1.0])); assert_eq!(tree.pop_nearest_neighbor(&[0.0, 0.0]), None);

`impl<T, Params> RTree<T, Params> where`

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

[src]

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

`pub fn insert(&mut self, t: T)`

[src]

Inserts a new element into the r-tree.

If the element has already been present in the tree, it will now be present twice.

# Runtime

This method runs in `O(log(n))`

.
The r-tree documentation contains more information about
r-tree performance.

## Trait Implementations

`impl<T: Clone, Params: Clone> Clone for RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject,

[src]

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject,

`impl<T, Params> Debug for RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject + Debug,

[src]

Params: RTreeParams,

T: RTreeObject + Debug,

`impl<T, Params> Default for RTree<T, Params> where`

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

[src]

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

`impl<'a, T, Params> IntoIterator for &'a RTree<T, Params> where`

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

[src]

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

`type IntoIter = SelectionIterator<'a, T, SelectAllFunc>`

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

`type Item = &'a T`

The type of the elements being iterated over.

`fn into_iter(self) -> Self::IntoIter`

[src]

`impl<'a, T, Params> IntoIterator for &'a mut RTree<T, Params> where`

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

[src]

T: RTreeObject,

Params: RTreeParams,

## Auto Trait Implementations

`impl<T, Params> RefUnwindSafe for RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: RefUnwindSafe,

T: RefUnwindSafe,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: RefUnwindSafe,

Params: RefUnwindSafe,

T: RefUnwindSafe,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: RefUnwindSafe,

`impl<T, Params> Send for RTree<T, Params> where`

T: Send,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: Send,

T: Send,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: Send,

`impl<T, Params> Sync for RTree<T, Params> where`

T: Sync,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: Sync,

T: Sync,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: Sync,

`impl<T, Params> Unpin for RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: Unpin,

T: Unpin,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: Unpin,

Params: Unpin,

T: Unpin,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: Unpin,

`impl<T, Params> UnwindSafe for RTree<T, Params> where`

Params: UnwindSafe,

T: UnwindSafe,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: UnwindSafe,

Params: UnwindSafe,

T: UnwindSafe,

<T as RTreeObject>::Envelope: UnwindSafe,

## Blanket Implementations

`impl<T> Any for T where`

T: 'static + ?Sized,

[src]

T: 'static + ?Sized,

`impl<T> Borrow<T> for T where`

T: ?Sized,

[src]

T: ?Sized,

`impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T where`

T: ?Sized,

[src]

T: ?Sized,

`fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T`

[src]

`impl<T> From<T> for T`

[src]

`impl<T, U> Into<U> for T where`

U: From<T>,

[src]

U: From<T>,

`impl<T> Same<T> for T`

`type Output = T`

Should always be `Self`

`impl<T> ToOwned for T where`

T: Clone,

[src]

T: Clone,

`type Owned = T`

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

`fn to_owned(&self) -> T`

[src]

`fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)`

[src]

`impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T where`

U: Into<T>,

[src]

U: Into<T>,

`type Error = Infallible`

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

`fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>`

[src]

`impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T where`

U: TryFrom<T>,

[src]

U: TryFrom<T>,