[][src]Crate reikna

A fast and lightweight math library

reikna contains implementations of various useful functions, structs, and algorithms from various branches of mathematics, including number theory, graph theory, and calculus. The library is designed with speed and ease of use in mind.


This library is on crates.io, and can be added to your project by placing the following into your Cargo.toml

reikna = "0.10.0"

and then importing the crate with

#[macro_use] extern crate reikna;

Make sure to include the #[macro_use] part!


A list of the modules currently included in this crate, along with a brief description of each.

  • aliquot -- Functions for calcuating aliquot sums, divisor sums, and testing for perfect numbers and similar concepts.

  • continued_fraction -- Generate and expand continued fractions.

  • derivative -- Estimate derivatives of functions, along with slope and concavity.

  • factor -- Compute the GCD, LCM, and prime factorization of numbers.

  • figurate -- Compute the value of various kinds of figurate numbers.

  • func -- Utility type alias and macro, used heavily in certain other modules.

  • integral -- Estimate integrals of functions using numeric integration.

  • partition -- Compute the value of the number theory partition function.

  • prime -- Prime sieves, basic factoring algorithms, and primality tests.

  • prime_count -- Compute the value of the prime-counting function.

  • totient -- Compute Euler's Totient Function.


Compute the number of primes under one million

use reikna::prime::prime_sieve;

let primes = prime_sieve(1_000_000);
println!("there are {} primes under one million!", primes.len());

Factor a large integer

use reikna::factor::quick_factorize;

let my_number = 15_814_272_409_530_912_054;
let factors = quick_factorize(my_number);
println!("The prime factorization of {} is:", my_number);
println!("{:?}", factors);


The prime factorization of 15814272409530912054 is:
[2, 3, 3, 23, 23, 61, 10007, 2720741641]

Relationship between the last digits of prime numbers

Primes are considered to be pseudo-random, yet there exists a relationship between the last digit of a prime number and the last digit of the next prime number. For example, a prime ending in 1 has only a 16% chance of being followed by another prime that ends in one, at least in the range [1, 1,000,000].

extern crate reikna;

use reikna::prime::prime_sieve;

pub fn main() {

    // generate primes less than one million, removing
    // the single digit ones.
    let primes = &prime_sieve(1_000_000)[4..];

    let mut data = [[0u64; 10]; 10]; // 10x10 array to store the data

    // loop through the primes and count digit frequency
    let mut old_last_digit = primes[0] % 10;
    for i in 1..primes.len() {
        let last_digit = primes[i] % 10;
        data[old_last_digit as usize][last_digit as usize] += 1;
        old_last_digit = last_digit;

    // store the totals into the 0's column, since it's not
    // being used for anything
    for i in 1..10 {
        data[0][i] = data[i].iter().fold(0, |acc, x| acc + x);

    // print out the data
    for i in vec![1, 3, 7, 9] {
        println!("primes ending in '{}':", i);
        println!(" * total -- {}", data[0][i]);

        for k in vec![1, 3, 7, 9] {
            println!(" * % next prime ending in '{}' -- {}%",
                     k, data[i][k] as f64 / data[0][i] as f64 * 100.0);


By changing the max value, it can be observed that the bias shrinks as the max grows.



Module for working with aliquot and divisor sums.


Module for working with continued fractions.


Module for working with derivatives.


Module for working with integer factorization.


Module for generating various kinds of figurate numbers.


Module for working with Functions


Module for working with integrals.


Module for working with the number theory partition function.


Module for working with prime numbers.


Module for working with the prime-counting function.


Module for working with Euler's totient function.



Macro for creating a Function.


Macro representing the body of a segmented Sieve of Eratosthenes.