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```
```pub mod gcra;
pub mod leaky_bucket;

pub use self::gcra::*;
pub use self::leaky_bucket::*;

use evmap::ShallowCopy;
use failure::Fail;
use std::fmt;
use std::num::NonZeroU32;
use std::time::{Duration, Instant};
use {InconsistentCapacity, NegativeMultiDecision};

/// The default rate limiting algorithm in this crate: The ["leaky
/// bucket"](leaky_bucket/struct.LeakyBucket.html).
///
/// The leaky bucket algorithm is fairly easy to understand and has
/// decent performance in most cases. If better threaded performance
/// is needed, this crate also offers the
/// [`GCRA`](gcra/struct.GCRA.html) algorithm.
pub type DefaultAlgorithm = LeakyBucket;

/// importantly the earliest time until the next cell could be
/// considered conforming.
///
/// Since this does not account for effects like thundering herds,
/// users should always add random jitter to the times given.
pub trait NonConformance {
/// Returns the earliest time at which a decision could be
/// conforming (excluding conforming decisions made by the Decider
/// that are made in the meantime).
fn earliest_possible(&self) -> Instant;

/// Returns the minimum amount of time from the time that the
/// decision was made (relative to the `at` argument in a
/// `Decider`'s `check_at` method) that must pass before a
/// decision can be conforming. Since Durations can not be
/// negative, a zero duration is returned if `from` is already
/// after that duration.
fn wait_time_from(&self, from: Instant) -> Duration;

/// Returns the minimum amount of time (down to 0) that needs to
/// pass from the current instant for the Decider to consider a
/// cell conforming again.
fn wait_time(&self) -> Duration {
self.wait_time_from(Instant::now())
}
}

/// The trait that implementations of metered rate-limiter algorithms
/// have to implement.
///
/// Implementing structures are expected to represent the "parameters"
/// (e.g., the allowed requests/s), and keep the information necessary
/// to make a decision, e.g. concrete usage statistics for an
/// in-memory rate limiter, in the associated structure
/// [`BucketState`](#associatedtype.BucketState).
pub trait Algorithm: Send + Sync + Sized + fmt::Debug {
/// The state of a single rate limiting bucket.
///
/// Every new rate limiting state is initialized as `Default`. The
/// states must be safe to share across threads (this crate uses a
/// `parking_lot` Mutex to allow that).
type BucketState: RateLimitState<Self> + Default + Send + Sync + Eq + ShallowCopy + fmt::Debug;

/// The type returned when a rate limiting decision for a single
/// cell is negative. Each rate limiting algorithm can decide to
/// return the type that suits it best, but most algorithms'
/// decisions also implement
/// [`NonConformance`](trait.NonConformance.html), to ease
/// handling of how long to wait.
type NegativeDecision: PartialEq + Fail;

/// Constructs a rate limiter with the given parameters:
/// `capacity` is the number of cells to allow, weighing
/// `cell_weight`, every `per_time_unit`.
fn construct(
capacity: NonZeroU32,
cell_weight: NonZeroU32,
per_time_unit: Duration,
) -> Result<Self, InconsistentCapacity>;

/// Tests if `n` cells can be accommodated in the rate limiter at
/// the instant `at` and updates the rate-limiter state to account
/// for the weight of the cells and updates the ratelimiter state.
///
/// The update is all or nothing: Unless all n cells can be
/// accommodated, the state of the rate limiter will not be
/// updated.
fn test_n_and_update(
&self,
state: &Self::BucketState,
n: u32,
at: Instant,
) -> Result<(), NegativeMultiDecision<Self::NegativeDecision>>;

/// Tests if a single cell can be accommodated in the rate limiter
/// at the instant `at` and updates the rate-limiter state to
/// account for the weight of the cell.
///
/// This method is provided by default, using the `n` test&update
/// method.
fn test_and_update(
&self,
state: &Self::BucketState,
at: Instant,
) -> Result<(), Self::NegativeDecision> {
match self.test_n_and_update(state, 1, at) {
Ok(()) => Ok(()),
Err(NegativeMultiDecision::BatchNonConforming(1, nc)) => Err(nc),
Err(other) => unreachable!(
"BUG: measuring a batch of size 1 reported insufficient capacity: {:?}",
other
),
}
}
}

/// Trait that all rate limit states have to implement around
/// housekeeping in keyed rate limiters.
pub trait RateLimitState<P> {
/// Returns the last time instant that the state had any relevance
/// (i.e. the rate limiter would behave exactly as if it was a new
/// rate limiter after this time).
///
/// If the state has not been touched for a given amount of time,
/// the keyed rate limiter will expire it.
///