# [−][src]Crate merklemountainrange

The Merkle mountain range was invented by Peter Todd more about them can be read at: https://github.com/opentimestamps/opentimestamps-server/blob/master/doc/merkle-mountain-range.md https://github.com/mimblewimble/grin/blob/master/doc/mmr.md

A Merkle mountain range(MMR) is a binary tree where each parent is the concatenated hash of its two children. The leaves at the bottom of the MMR is the hashes of the data. The MMR allows easy to add and proof of existence inside of the tree. MMR always tries to have the largest possible single binary tree, so in effect it is possible to have more than one binary tree. Every time you have to get the merkle root (the single merkle proof of the whole MMR) you have the bag the peaks of the individual trees, or mountain peaks.

Lets take an example of how to construct one. Say you have the following MMR already made: ''' /
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''' From this we can see we have 3 trees or mountains. We have constructed the largest possible tree's we can. If we want to calculate the merkle route we will bag each of the mountains in the following way ''' /
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''' Lets continue the example, by adding a single object. Our MMR now looks as follows ''' /
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////\ //\ /\ / ''' We now have 4 mountains. Lets bag and calculate the merkle root again ''' /
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''' Lets continue thw example, by adding a single object. Our MMR now looks as follows ''' /
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''' Now we only have a single binary tree, we dont have to bag the mountains to calculate the merkle root. This process continues as you add more objects to the MMR. ''' /
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''' Due to the unique way the MMR is constructed we can easily represent the MMR as a list of the nodes, as when adding nodes you only append. Lets take the following MMR and number the nodes in the order we create them. ''' 7 /
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1 2 4 5 ''' Looking above at the example of when you create the nodes, you will see the nodes will have been created in the order as they are named. This means we can easily represent them as a list: Height: 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 2 Node: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Because of the list nature of the MMR we can easily navigate around the MMR using the following formulas: Jump to sibling : 2^(H+1) -1 find peak : 2^(H+1) -2 where < total elements left down : 2^H right down: -1 Note that the formulas are for direct indexes in the array, meaning the nodes count from 0 and not 1 as in the examples above. H - Height I - Index

Pruning the MMR means flagging a node as pruned and only removing it if its sibling has been removed. We do this as we require the sibling to prove the hash of the node. Taking the above example, let's prune leaf 1. ''' /
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''' Node 1 has now only been marked as pruned but we cannot remove it as of yet because we still require it to prove node 2. When we prune node 2, the MMR looks as follows ''' /
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''' Although we have not removed node 1 and node 2 from the MMR, we cannot yet remove node 3 as we require node 3 for the proof of node 6. Let's prune 4 and 5. ''' /
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''' Now we removed 3 from the MMR

## Modules

 error merklemountainrange merklenode mmr