Crate fomat_macros [] [src]

This crate provides alternative syntax for write!, writeln!, print!, println! and format! macros. It also introduces macros to print on stderr.

The names of macros in this crate are formed by removing the letter r from their std counterparts.

Index: examples •  syntax: "string", (), [], {}, for, if, match, = •  troubleshooting •  macros


#[macro_use] extern crate fomat_macros;

fn main() {
    pintln!("Hello, World!");
    pintln!("Display trait: "(2+2));
    pintln!("Debug trait: "[vec![1, 2, 3]]);
    pintln!("Multiple " "parameters" (1) " " [2]);

    pintln!("Formatting parameters: " {(1./3.):5.2}); // 0.333
    pintln!("Debug: "[= 2 + 2]); // Debug: 2 + 2 = 4

This crate also contains a small templating language, allowing you to mix constructs like for with the printing syntax. The following should print 1 :: 2 :: 3 :: nil.

let list = [1, 2, 3];
pintln!( for x in &list { (x) " :: " } "nil" );

Syntax overview

All the macros share the same syntax, so it will be described in this section.

The macros take list of things to print as an argument. Each thing could be either a string literal, something inside brackets ((), [] or {}) or a Rust construct (for, if let, if or match). There has to be no separator (like a comma) between those things.

Whitespace is ignored outside the string literals.

String literals

String literals will be formatted directly as they are. Note that this also applies to { and } characters.

let s = fomat!("Hi." "{}");
assert_eq!(s, "Hi.{}");

Expressions in () and [] brackets.

Expressions in these brackets will be evaluated and printed using:

  • Display trait for (expr) (equivalent to {} format).
  • Debug trait for [expr] (equivalent to {:?} format).

Like in std, they are implicitly borrowed.

let s = fomat!( ("string") (2 + 2) ", " [vec![1]] );
assert_eq!(s, "string4, [1]")

Curly braces

write! passthrough

If you want to use regular format! syntax for some part of your string, place format! arguments inside the curly braces:

use std::io::Write;

let mut v = vec![];
wite!(v, "foo " {"{} baz {}", "bar", "quux"});
assert_eq!(v, "foo bar baz quux".as_bytes());

Single argument

If you only want to print a single argument with a custom format parameters, you can use the {token_tree:format_parameters} syntax.

The following will use binary format, zero-aligned to 8 places.

let s = fomat!({13:08b});
assert_eq!(s, "00001101");

Please note that there can be only a single token tree before the colon – usually a literal or an identifier. Anything longer has to be wrapped in parentheses (like that {(10+3):08b}).

For loops

For loops use the regular Rust syntax, except the body will use this printing syntax again.

let list = [1, 2, 3];
let s = fomat!( for x in &list { (x) " :: " } "nil" );
assert_eq!(s, "1 :: 2 :: 3 :: nil");

For loops can also use an optional separator, denoted by sep or separated keyword.

let s = fomat!(
   for (i, x) in list.iter().enumerate() { (i) " → " (x) }
   separated { ", " }
assert_eq!(s, "0 → a, 1 → b");

For loops (and other syntax elements) can also be nested:

let matrix = [[0, 1], [2, 3]];
    fomat!( for row in &matrix { for x in row { {x:3} } "\n" } ),
    "  0  1\n  2  3\n"

If and if let

They use the regular Rust syntax, except of the body (inside {}), which uses the printing syntax.

The benefits of using this syntax instead of getting if "outside" of the printing macros is apparent when the conditional is a part of a longer string (you don't have to split this into three separate write!s):

let opt = Some(5);
let s = fomat!(
    if let Some(x) = opt { (x) "\n" } else { "nothing\n" }
assert_eq!(s, "a\n5\nb\n");

The else clause is optional.

else if-chaining is not supported. As a workaround, use else { if ... } or match.


Match uses the regular Rust syntax, except arms has to use {} blocks, which will be interpreted using printing syntax.

let v = [Some(1), None, Some(2)];
let s = fomat!(
    for x in &v {
        match *x {
            Some(x) => { (x) }
            None => { "_" }
assert_eq!(s, "1_2");

Match arms should not be separated by commas.

Debugging shorthand

If you want to print both the expression and the value, place equal sign as a first character in brackets. The trait used to print the value will depend on the kind of brackets used.

let word = "foo";
let arr = [10];
let s = fomat!( (=word) ", " [=&arr] ", " {=5:#b} );
assert_eq!(s, "word = foo, &arr = [10], 5 = 0b101");


Recursion depth

If you hit the error about recursion depth, which occurs when you try to print more than about 50 elements, you can use this workaround instead of increasing the limit: split everything into two (or more) dummy if true blocks.

Errors in macro parsing

If you hit expected a literal, that either means either you've made a syntactic mistake or really a string literal is expected here. Remember, naked identifiers won't be printed unless you put them in parentheses.



Prints to stderr. Analogous to eprint!.


Prints to stderr, with an appended newline. Analogous to eprintln!.


Creates a formatted string. Analogous to format!.

perr [

Same as epint

perrln [

Same as epintln


Prints to stdout. Analogous to print!.


Prints to stdout, with an appended newline. Analoguous to println!.


Writes to a specified writer. Analogous to write!.


Writes to a specified writer, with an appended newline. Analogous to writeln!.