[][src]Crate fibers

This is a library to execute a number of lightweight asynchronous tasks (a.k.a, fibers).

Note that fibers heavily uses futures to represent asynchronous task. If you are not familiar with it, we recommend that you refer the README.md and TUTORIAL.md of futures before reading the following.

This library also uses mio to achieve efficient asynchronous I/O handling (mainly for networking primitives). However, its existence is hidden from the user, so you do not usually have to worry about it.

Future is an excellent way to represent asynchronous task. It is intuitive, easily composed with other futures to represent a complicated task, without runtime overhead. But, there is a remaining problem that "How to efficiently execute (possibility a very large amount of) concurrent tasks?". fibers is an answer to the problem.

Conceptually, the responsibility of fibers is very simple. It represents an asynchronous task (a.k.a., fiber) as a future instance. And there is an executor that takes futures and executes them like following.

This example is not tested
// Creates an executor.
let mut executor = ThreadPoolExecutor::new().unwrap();

// Spawns fibers (i.e., passes futures to the executor).
executor.spawn(futures::lazy(|| { println!("Hello"); Ok(())} ));
executor.spawn(futures::lazy(|| { println!("World!"); Ok(())} ));

// Executes them.

Fibers may be run on different background threads, but the user does not need to notice it. If it runs on machines with a large number of processors, performance will improve naturally.

Roughly speaking, if a future returns Async::NotReady response to a call of Future::poll method, the fiber associated with the future will move into the "waiting" state. Then, it is suspended (descheduled) until any event in which the future is interested happens (e.g., waits until data is arrived on a target TCP socket). Finally, if a future returns Async::Ready response, the fiber will be regarded as completed and the executor will drop the fiber.

This library provides primitives for writing programs in an efficient asynchronous fashion (See documentations of net, sync, io, time modules for more details).

The main concern of this library is "how to execute fibers". So it is preferred to use external crates (e.g., handy_async) to describe "how to represent asynchronous tasks".


The following are examples of writing code to perform asynchronous tasks.

Other examples are found in "fibers/examples" directory. And you can run an example by executing the following command.

$ cargo run --example ${EXAMPLE_NAME}

Calculation of fibonacci numbers

use fibers::{Spawn, Executor, ThreadPoolExecutor};
use futures::Future;

fn fibonacci<H: Spawn + Clone>(n: usize, handle: H) -> Box<dyn Future<Item=usize, Error=()> + Send> {
    if n < 2 {
    } else {
        // Spawns a new fiber per recursive call.
        let f0 = handle.spawn_monitor(fibonacci(n - 1, handle.clone()));
        let f1 = handle.spawn_monitor(fibonacci(n - 2, handle.clone()));
        Box::new(f0.join(f1).map(|(a0, a1)| a0 + a1).map_err(|_| ()))

// Creates an executor instance.
let mut executor = ThreadPoolExecutor::new().unwrap();

// Creates a future which will calculate the fibonacchi number of `10`.
let input_number = 10;
let future = fibonacci(input_number, executor.handle());

// Spawns and executes the future (fiber).
let monitor = executor.spawn_monitor(future);
let answer = executor.run_fiber(monitor).unwrap();

// Checkes the answer.
assert_eq!(answer, Ok(55));

TCP Echo Server

An example of TCP echo server listening at the address "":

use std::io;
use fibers::{Spawn, Executor, ThreadPoolExecutor};
use fibers::net::TcpListener;
use futures::{Future, Stream};
use handy_async::io::{AsyncWrite, ReadFrom};
use handy_async::pattern::AllowPartial;

let server_addr = "".parse().expect("Invalid TCP bind address");

let mut executor = ThreadPoolExecutor::new().expect("Cannot create Executor");
let handle0 = executor.handle();
let monitor = executor.spawn_monitor(TcpListener::bind(server_addr)
    .and_then(move |listener| {
        println!("# Start listening: {}: ", server_addr);

        // Creates a stream of incoming TCP client sockets
        listener.incoming().for_each(move |(client, addr)| {
            // New client is connected.
            println!("# CONNECTED: {}", addr);
            let handle1 = handle0.clone();

            // Spawns a fiber to handle the client.
            handle0.spawn(client.and_then(move |client| {
                    // For simplicity, splits reading process and
                    // writing process into differrent fibers.
                    let (reader, writer) = (client.clone(), client);
                    let (tx, rx) = fibers::sync::mpsc::channel();

                    // Spawns a fiber for the writer side.
                    // When a message is arrived in `rx`,
                    // this fiber sends it back to the client.
                    handle1.spawn(rx.map_err(|_| -> io::Error { unreachable!() })
                        .fold(writer, |writer, buf: Vec<u8>| {
                            println!("# SEND: {} bytes", buf.len());
                                  .map(|(w, _)| w)
                                  .map_err(|e| e.into_error())
                        .then(|r| {
                            println!("# Writer finished: {:?}", r);

                    // The reader side is executed in the current fiber.
                    let stream = vec![0;1024].allow_partial().into_stream(reader);
                    stream.map_err(|e| e.into_error())
                        .fold(tx, |tx, (mut buf, len)| {
                            println!("# RECV: {} bytes", buf.len());

                            // Sends received  to the writer half.
                            tx.send(buf).expect("Cannot send");
                            Ok(tx) as io::Result<_>
                .then(|r| {
                    println!("# Client finished: {:?}", r);
let result = executor.run_fiber(monitor).expect("Execution failed");
println!("# Listener finished: {:?}", result);



The Executor trait and its implementations.


Fiber related components (for developers).


I/O related functionalities.


Networking primitives for TCP/UDP communication.


Synchronization primitives.


Time related functionalities.



Boxed Spawn object.


An executor that executes spawned fibers and I/O event polling on current thread.


An executor that executes spawned fibers on pooled threads.



The Executor trait allows for spawning and executing fibers.


The Spawn trait allows for spawning fibers.