Expand description

A medium-level API for programmatically interacting with web pages through WebDriver.

This crate uses the WebDriver protocol to drive a conforming (potentially headless) browser through relatively operations such as “click this element”, “submit this form”, etc.

Most interactions are driven by using CSS selectors. With most WebDriver-compatible browser being fairly recent, the more expressive levels of the CSS standard are also supported, giving fairly powerful operators.

Forms are managed by first calling Client::form, and then using the methods on Form to manipulate the form’s fields and eventually submitting it.

For low-level access to the page, Client::source can be used to fetch the full page HTML source code, and Client::raw_client_for to build a raw HTTP request for a particular URL.

Feature flags

The following feature flags exist for this crate.


These examples all assume that you have a WebDriver compatible process running on port 4444. A quick way to get one is to run geckodriver at the command line. The code also has partial support for the legacy WebDriver protocol used by chromedriver and ghostdriver.

The examples will be using panic! or unwrap generously when errors occur (see map_err) — you should probably not do that in your code, and instead deal with errors when they occur. This is particularly true for methods that you expect might fail, such as lookups by CSS selector.

Let’s start out clicking around on Wikipedia:

use fantoccini::{ClientBuilder, Locator};

// let's set up the sequence of steps we want the browser to take
async fn main() -> Result<(), fantoccini::error::CmdError> {
    // Connecting using "native" TLS (with feature `native-tls`; on by default)
    let c = ClientBuilder::native().connect("http://localhost:4444").await.expect("failed to connect to WebDriver");
    // Connecting using Rustls (with feature `rustls-tls`)
    let c = ClientBuilder::rustls().connect("http://localhost:4444").await.expect("failed to connect to WebDriver");

    // first, go to the Wikipedia page for Foobar
    let url = c.current_url().await?;
    assert_eq!(url.as_ref(), "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foobar");

    // click "Foo (disambiguation)"

    // click "Foo Lake"
    c.find(Locator::LinkText("Foo Lake")).await?.click().await?;

    let url = c.current_url().await?;
    assert_eq!(url.as_ref(), "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foo_Lake");


How did we get to the Foobar page in the first place? We did a search! Let’s make the program do that for us instead:

// -- snip wrapper code --
// go to the Wikipedia frontpage this time
// find the search form, fill it out, and submit it
let f = c.form(Locator::Css("#search-form")).await?;
f.set_by_name("search", "foobar").await?

// we should now have ended up in the rigth place
let url = c.current_url().await?;
assert_eq!(url.as_ref(), "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foobar");

// -- snip wrapper code --

What if we want to download a raw file? Fantoccini has you covered:

// -- snip wrapper code --
// go back to the frontpage
// find the source for the Wikipedia globe
let img = c.find(Locator::Css("img.central-featured-logo")).await?;
let src = img.attr("src").await?.expect("image should have a src");
// now build a raw HTTP client request (which also has all current cookies)
let raw = img.client().raw_client_for(hyper::Method::GET, &src).await?;

// we then read out the image bytes
use futures_util::TryStreamExt;
let pixels = hyper::body::to_bytes(raw.into_body()).await.map_err(fantoccini::error::CmdError::from)?;
// and voilla, we now have the bytes for the Wikipedia logo!
assert!(pixels.len() > 0);
println!("Wikipedia logo is {}b", pixels.len());

// -- snip wrapper code --

For more examples, take a look at the examples/ directory.


Actions functionality for WebDriver.

WebDriver client implementation.

Cookie-related functionality for WebDriver.

Types used to represent particular elements on a page.

Error types.

Key codes for use with Actions.

Allow to wait for conditions.

WebDriver types and declarations.


A WebDriver client tied to a single browser session.

A builder for WebDriver Client instances.


An element locator.