[][src]Crate cynic


Cynic is a GraphQL query builder & data mapper for Rust.

This documentation is primarily intended to be a reference for specific functions, for a guide to using Cynic see the website: cynic-rs.dev.


To get started with Cynic you'll need a GraphQL schema for the API you wish to query. The examples will be using the star wars API.

Generating a Query DSL

Once you've got your schema installed locally, you'll need to use the query_dsl macro to generate a query_dsl for your schema:

mod query_dsl {

This macro generates a few things:

  1. Some structs to represent the Input types the underlying schema. You may need to use these to build mutations or as parameters to queries.
  2. Definitons of all the Enums in the provided schema. You'll need these if you want to use any enum types.
  3. Type safe selection set functions. These can be used to build up a query manually, though it's usually easier to use the QueryFragment derive functionality explained below. Hopefully you'll not need to use these directly too often.

Though using macros to generate these is convenient, it does leave a lot of code to the imagination. You can get a glimpse of the things this defines by running cargo doc --document-private-items and having a look in the query_dsl module. It's not ideal, but at least provides some visibility into the various enum types.

Creating QueryFragments

Now that you have a query_dsl defined, you can start building some queries. Cynic lets you do this by deriving QueryFragment for a struct. For example, if we wanted to know what director title & director a Star Wars film had, we could define this QueryFragment:

    schema_path = "../examples/examples/starwars.schema.graphql",
    query_module = "query_dsl",
    graphql_type = "Film"
struct Film {
    title: Option<String>,
    director: Option<String>

// This `Film` struct can now be used as the type of a field on any other
// `QueryFragment` struct and cynic will know how to turn that into a GraphQL
// query, and populate the `Film` struct from the response.

// For example, if we wanted to know the Director for a particular film:

    schema_path = "../examples/examples/starwars.schema.graphql",
    query_module = "query_dsl",
    graphql_type = "Root"
struct FilmDirectorQuery {
    // Here we use the `#[arguments()]` attribute on the `film` field to provide a
    // hard coded film ID to look up.  Though useful for demonstration, hard coded
    // arguments like this aren't much use in reality.  For more details on providing
    // runtime arguments please see below.
    #[arguments(id = cynic::Id::new("ZmlsbXM6MQ=="))]
    film: Option<Film>,

// You can then build a `cynic::Query` from this fragment
use cynic::QueryFragment;
let operation = cynic::Operation::query(FilmDirectorQuery::fragment(&()));

operation above implements serde::Serialize so can be used with any HTTP client. A selection of HTTP client integrations are provided in cynic::http - see the docs there for examples of using a cynic::Operation

This example is not tested
let response = reqwest::blocking::Client::new()
let result = query.decode_response(response.json()?)?;

After this code has run, result will be an instance of FilmDirectorQuery with the film populated appropriately.

Dynamic Query Arguments

The query above was useful for demonstration, but you'll usually want to be able to provide parameters to your query. To do this, you should define a struct that contains all of the parameters you want to provide:

// Deriving `FragmentArguments` allows this struct to be used as arguments to a
// `QueryFragment` fragment, whether it represents part of a query or a whole query.
struct FilmArguments {
    id: Option<cynic::Id>

// You can now define a query to use these arguments on.  For example, to make
// `FilmDirectorQuery` a bit more dynamic:
    schema_path = "../examples/examples/starwars.schema.graphql",
    query_module = "query_dsl",
    graphql_type = "Root",
    // By adding the `argument_struct` parameter to our `QueryFragment` we've made a variable
    // named `args` avaiable for use in the `arguments` attribute.
    argument_struct = "FilmArguments"
struct FilmDirectorQueryWithArgs {
    // Here we use `args`, which we've declared above to be an instance of `FilmArguments`
    #[arguments(id = &args.id)]
    film: Option<Film>,

// Then we can build a query using this new struct;
use cynic::QueryFragment;
let operation = cynic::Operation::query(
        &FilmArguments{ id: Some("ZmlsbXM6MQ==".into()) }

Feature Flags

Cynic has a few features that are controlled by feature flags.

  • chrono adds support for chrono::DateTime scalars.
  • uuid adds support for Uuid scalars
  • bson adds support for ObjectId scalars
  • url adds support for Url scalars
  • surf adds integration with the surf http client.

It's worth noting that each of these features pulls in extra dependencies, which may impact your build size. Particularly if you're targetting WASM. In particular the url crate has known issues when targetting web assembly.


pub use selection_set::SelectionSet;
pub use serde_json;



HTTP client support for cynic.


SelectionSets are the core building block of GraphQL queries in cynic.




Defines useful argument conversions for scalar-like types


Implements serializable argument for scalar types.




A model describing an error which has taken place during execution.




The data returned by a GraphQL query when the query had errors. GraphQL allows servers to return partial data in this case, but if there's missing fields that aren't represented by an Option we won't have been able to decode that data.



A trait for GraphQL enums.


A marker trait for the arguments types on QueryFragments.


Used for converting between different argument types in a QueryFragment hierarchy.


A trait for GraphQL input objects.


IntoArgument is used to type-check arguments to queries in cynic.


A marker trait that indicates a particular type is at the root of a GraphQL schemas mutation hierarchy.


A marker trait that indicates a particular type is at the root of a GraphQL schemas query hierarchy.


Type Definitions


The result of a GraphQL Operation.


Attribute Macros


Derive Macros