hashdb 0.3.0-beta.0

trait for hash-keyed databases.
Documentation
// Copyright 2015-2018 Parity Technologies (UK) Ltd.
// This file is part of Parity.

// Parity is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
// (at your option) any later version.

// Parity is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
// GNU General Public License for more details.

// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with Parity.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

//! Database of byte-slices keyed to their hash.

#![cfg_attr(not(feature = "std"), no_std)]

#[cfg(feature = "std")]
extern crate core;

#[cfg(feature = "std")]
#[cfg(feature = "std")]
use std::collections::HashMap;
use core::{fmt::Debug, hash::Hash};

/// Trait describing an object that can hash a slice of bytes. Used to abstract
/// other types over the hashing algorithm. Defines a single `hash` method and an
/// `Out` associated type with the necessary bounds.
pub trait Hasher: Sync + Send {
	/// The output type of the `Hasher`
	type Out: AsRef<[u8]> + AsMut<[u8]> + Default + Debug + PartialEq + Eq + Hash + Send + Sync + Clone + Copy;
	/// What to use to build `HashMap`s with this `Hasher`
	type StdHasher: Sync + Send + Default + core::hash::Hasher;
	/// The length in bytes of the `Hasher` output
	const LENGTH: usize;

	/// Compute the hash of the provided slice of bytes returning the `Out` type of the `Hasher`
	fn hash(x: &[u8]) -> Self::Out;
}

/// Trait modelling datastore keyed by a hash defined by the `Hasher`.
#[cfg(feature = "std")]
pub trait HashDB<H: Hasher, T>: Send + Sync + AsHashDB<H, T> {
	/// Get the keys in the database together with number of underlying references.
	fn keys(&self) -> HashMap<H::Out, i32>;

	/// Look up a given hash into the bytes that hash to it, returning None if the
	/// hash is not known.
	fn get(&self, key: &H::Out) -> Option<T>;

	/// Check for the existance of a hash-key.
	fn contains(&self, key: &H::Out) -> bool;

	/// Insert a datum item into the DB and return the datum's hash for a later lookup. Insertions
	/// are counted and the equivalent number of `remove()`s must be performed before the data
	/// is considered dead.
	fn insert(&mut self, value: &[u8]) -> H::Out;

	/// Like `insert()`, except you provide the key and the data is all moved.
	fn emplace(&mut self, key: H::Out, value: T);

	/// Remove a datum previously inserted. Insertions can be "owed" such that the same number of `insert()`s may
	/// happen without the data being eventually being inserted into the DB. It can be "owed" more than once.
	fn remove(&mut self, key: &H::Out);
}

/// Upcast trait.
#[cfg(feature = "std")]
pub trait AsHashDB<H: Hasher, T> {
	/// Perform upcast to HashDB for anything that derives from HashDB.
	fn as_hashdb(&self) -> &HashDB<H, T>;
	/// Perform mutable upcast to HashDB for anything that derives from HashDB.
	fn as_hashdb_mut(&mut self) -> &mut HashDB<H, T>;
}

// NOTE: There used to be a `impl<T> AsHashDB for T` but that does not work with generics. See https://stackoverflow.com/questions/48432842/implementing-a-trait-for-reference-and-non-reference-types-causes-conflicting-im
// This means we need concrete impls of AsHashDB in several places, which somewhat defeats the point of the trait.
#[cfg(feature = "std")]
impl<'a, H: Hasher, T> AsHashDB<H, T> for &'a mut HashDB<H, T> {
	fn as_hashdb(&self) -> &HashDB<H, T> { &**self }
	fn as_hashdb_mut(&mut self) -> &mut HashDB<H, T> { &mut **self }
}