downcast-rs 0.1.2

Trait object downcasting support using safe code and supporting type parameters, associated types, and type constraints.
Documentation

downcast-rs

Rust enums are great for types where all variations are known beforehand. But in the case where you want to implement a container of user-defined types, an open-ended type like a trait object is needed. In some cases, it is useful to cast the trait object back into its original concrete type to access additional functionality and performant inlined implementations.

downcast-rs adds basic downcasting support to trait objects, supporting type parameters, associated types, and constraints.

To make a trait downcastable, make it extend the downcast::Downcast trait and invoke impl_downcast! on it as follows:

trait Trait: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(Trait);

// or

trait TraitGeneric<T>: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(TraitGeneric<T>);

// or

trait TraitGenericConstrained<T: Copy>: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(TraitGenericConstrained<T> where T: Copy);

// or

trait TraitGenericAssociatedConstrained<T: Copy>: Downcast {
    type H: Clone;
}
impl_downcast!(TraitGenericAssociatedConstrained<T> assoc H where T: Copy, H: Clone);

// or

// Use these variants when specifying concrete type parameters.
trait TraitGenericConcrete<T: Copy>: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(concrete TraitGenericConcrete<u32>);

trait TraitGenericAssociatedConcrete<T: Copy>: Downcast { type H; }
impl_downcast!(concrete TraitGenericAssociatedConcrete<u32> assoc H=f64);

Example without generics

#[macro_use]
extern crate downcast_rs;
use downcast_rs::Downcast;

// To create a trait with downcasting methods, extend `Downcast` and run
// impl_downcast!() on the trait.
trait Base: Downcast {}
impl_downcast!(Base);

// Concrete types implementing Base.
struct Foo(u32);
impl Base for Foo {}
struct Bar(f64);
impl Base for Bar {}

fn main() {
    // Create a trait object.
    let mut base: Box<Base> = Box::new(Foo(42));

    // Try sequential downcasts.
    if let Some(foo) = base.downcast_ref::<Foo>() {
        assert_eq!(foo.0, 42);
    } else if let Some(bar) = base.downcast_ref::<Bar>() {
        assert_eq!(bar.0, 42.0);
    }

    assert!(base.is::<Foo>());
}

Example with a generic trait with associated types and constraints

#[macro_use]
extern crate downcast_rs;
use downcast_rs::Downcast;

// To create a trait with downcasting methods, extend `Downcast` and run
// impl_downcast!() on the trait.
trait Base<T: Clone>: Downcast { type H: Copy; }
impl_downcast!(Base<T> assoc H where T: Clone, H: Copy);
// or: impl_downcast!(concrete Base<u32> assoc H=f32)

// Concrete types implementing Base.
struct Foo(u32);
impl Base<u32> for Foo { type H = f32; }
struct Bar(f64);
impl Base<u32> for Bar { type H = f32; }

fn main() {
    // Create a trait object.
    let mut base: Box<Base<u32, H=f32>> = Box::new(Bar(42.0));

    // Try sequential downcasts.
    if let Some(foo) = base.downcast_ref::<Foo>() {
        assert_eq!(foo.0, 42);
    } else if let Some(bar) = base.downcast_ref::<Bar>() {
        assert_eq!(bar.0, 42.0);
    }

    assert!(base.is::<Bar>());
}

License

Copyright 2015, Ashish Myles. This software is dual-licensed under the MIT and Apache 2.0 licenses.