Crate chrono

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§Chrono: Date and Time for Rust

Chrono aims to provide all functionality needed to do correct operations on dates and times in the proleptic Gregorian calendar:

  • The DateTime type is timezone-aware by default, with separate timezone-naive types.
  • Operations that may produce an invalid or ambiguous date and time return Option or MappedLocalTime.
  • Configurable parsing and formatting with a strftime inspired date and time formatting syntax.
  • The Local timezone works with the current timezone of the OS.
  • Types and operations are implemented to be reasonably efficient.

Timezone data is not shipped with chrono by default to limit binary sizes. Use the companion crate Chrono-TZ or tzfile for full timezone support.


Chrono supports various runtime environments and operating systems, and has several features that may be enabled or disabled.

Default features:

  • alloc: Enable features that depend on allocation (primarily string formatting).
  • std: Enables functionality that depends on the standard library. This is a superset of alloc and adds interoperation with standard library types and traits.
  • clock: Enables reading the local timezone (Local). This is a superset of now.
  • now: Enables reading the system time (now).
  • wasmbind: Interface with the JS Date API for the wasm32 target.

Optional features:

  • serde: Enable serialization/deserialization via serde.
  • rkyv: Deprecated, use the rkyv-* features.
  • rkyv-16: Enable serialization/deserialization via rkyv, using 16-bit integers for integral *size types.
  • rkyv-32: Enable serialization/deserialization via rkyv, using 32-bit integers for integral *size types.
  • rkyv-64: Enable serialization/deserialization via rkyv, using 64-bit integers for integral *size types.
  • rkyv-validation: Enable rkyv validation support using bytecheck.
  • arbitrary: Construct arbitrary instances of a type with the Arbitrary crate.
  • unstable-locales: Enable localization. This adds various methods with a _localized suffix. The implementation and API may change or even be removed in a patch release. Feedback welcome.
  • oldtime: This feature no longer has any effect; it used to offer compatibility with the time 0.1 crate.

Note: The rkyv{,-16,-32,-64} features are mutually exclusive.

See the cargo docs for examples of specifying features.


§Time delta / Duration

Chrono has a TimeDelta type to represent the magnitude of a time span. This is an “accurate” duration represented as seconds and nanoseconds, and does not represent “nominal” components such as days or months.

The TimeDelta type was previously named Duration (and is still available as a type alias with that name). A notable difference with the similar core::time::Duration is that it is a signed value instead of unsigned.

Chrono currently only supports a small number of operations with core::time::Duration. You can convert between both types with the TimeDelta::from_std and TimeDelta::to_std methods.

§Date and Time

Chrono provides a DateTime type to represent a date and a time in a timezone.

For more abstract moment-in-time tracking such as internal timekeeping that is unconcerned with timezones, consider std::time::SystemTime, which tracks your system clock, or std::time::Instant, which is an opaque but monotonically-increasing representation of a moment in time.

DateTime is timezone-aware and must be constructed from a TimeZone object, which defines how the local date is converted to and back from the UTC date. There are three well-known TimeZone implementations:

  • Utc specifies the UTC time zone. It is most efficient.

  • Local specifies the system local time zone.

  • FixedOffset specifies an arbitrary, fixed time zone such as UTC+09:00 or UTC-10:30. This often results from the parsed textual date and time. Since it stores the most information and does not depend on the system environment, you would want to normalize other TimeZones into this type.

DateTimes with different TimeZone types are distinct and do not mix, but can be converted to each other using the DateTime::with_timezone method.

You can get the current date and time in the UTC time zone (Utc::now()) or in the local time zone (Local::now()).

use chrono::prelude::*;

let utc: DateTime<Utc> = Utc::now(); // e.g. `2014-11-28T12:45:59.324310806Z`
use chrono::prelude::*;

let local: DateTime<Local> = Local::now(); // e.g. `2014-11-28T21:45:59.324310806+09:00`

Alternatively, you can create your own date and time. This is a bit verbose due to Rust’s lack of function and method overloading, but in turn we get a rich combination of initialization methods.

use chrono::offset::MappedLocalTime;
use chrono::prelude::*;

let dt = Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11).unwrap(); // `2014-07-08T09:10:11Z`
    NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8)?
        .and_hms_opt(9, 10, 11)?

// July 8 is 188th day of the year 2014 (`o` for "ordinal")
assert_eq!(dt, NaiveDate::from_yo_opt(2014, 189)?.and_hms_opt(9, 10, 11)?.and_utc());
// July 8 is Tuesday in ISO week 28 of the year 2014.
    NaiveDate::from_isoywd_opt(2014, 28, Weekday::Tue)?.and_hms_opt(9, 10, 11)?.and_utc()

let dt = NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8)?
    .and_hms_milli_opt(9, 10, 11, 12)?
    .and_utc(); // `2014-07-08T09:10:11.012Z`
    NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8)?
        .and_hms_micro_opt(9, 10, 11, 12_000)?
    NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8)?
        .and_hms_nano_opt(9, 10, 11, 12_000_000)?

// dynamic verification
    Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 7, 8, 21, 15, 33),
        NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8)?.and_hms_opt(21, 15, 33)?.and_utc()
assert_eq!(Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 7, 8, 80, 15, 33), MappedLocalTime::None);
assert_eq!(Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 7, 38, 21, 15, 33), MappedLocalTime::None);

// other time zone objects can be used to construct a local datetime.
// obviously, `local_dt` is normally different from `dt`, but `fixed_dt` should be identical.
let local_dt = Local
        &NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8).unwrap().and_hms_milli_opt(9, 10, 11, 12).unwrap(),
let fixed_dt = FixedOffset::east_opt(9 * 3600)
        &NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8)
            .and_hms_milli_opt(18, 10, 11, 12)
assert_eq!(dt, fixed_dt);

Various properties are available to the date and time, and can be altered individually. Most of them are defined in the traits Datelike and Timelike which you should use before. Addition and subtraction is also supported. The following illustrates most supported operations to the date and time:

use chrono::prelude::*;
use chrono::TimeDelta;

// assume this returned `2014-11-28T21:45:59.324310806+09:00`:
let dt = FixedOffset::east_opt(9 * 3600)
        &NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 11, 28)
            .and_hms_nano_opt(21, 45, 59, 324310806)

// property accessors
assert_eq!((dt.year(), dt.month(),, (2014, 11, 28));
assert_eq!((dt.month0(), dt.day0()), (10, 27)); // for unfortunate souls
assert_eq!((dt.hour(), dt.minute(), dt.second()), (21, 45, 59));
assert_eq!(dt.weekday(), Weekday::Fri);
assert_eq!(dt.weekday().number_from_monday(), 5); // Mon=1, ..., Sun=7
assert_eq!(dt.ordinal(), 332); // the day of year
assert_eq!(dt.num_days_from_ce(), 735565); // the number of days from and including Jan 1, 1

// time zone accessor and manipulation
assert_eq!(dt.offset().fix().local_minus_utc(), 9 * 3600);
assert_eq!(dt.timezone(), FixedOffset::east_opt(9 * 3600).unwrap());
    NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 11, 28)
        .and_hms_nano_opt(12, 45, 59, 324310806)

// a sample of property manipulations (validates dynamically)
assert_eq!(dt.with_day(29).unwrap().weekday(), Weekday::Sat); // 2014-11-29 is Saturday
assert_eq!(dt.with_day(32), None);
assert_eq!(dt.with_year(-300).unwrap().num_days_from_ce(), -109606); // November 29, 301 BCE

// arithmetic operations
let dt1 = Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 11, 14, 8, 9, 10).unwrap();
let dt2 = Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 11, 14, 10, 9, 8).unwrap();
assert_eq!(dt1.signed_duration_since(dt2), TimeDelta::try_seconds(-2 * 3600 + 2).unwrap());
assert_eq!(dt2.signed_duration_since(dt1), TimeDelta::try_seconds(2 * 3600 - 2).unwrap());
    Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0).unwrap()
        + TimeDelta::try_seconds(1_000_000_000).unwrap(),
    Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2001, 9, 9, 1, 46, 40).unwrap()
    Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0).unwrap()
        - TimeDelta::try_seconds(1_000_000_000).unwrap(),
    Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(1938, 4, 24, 22, 13, 20).unwrap()

§Formatting and Parsing

Formatting is done via the format method, which format is equivalent to the familiar strftime format.

See format::strftime documentation for full syntax and list of specifiers.

The default to_string method and {:?} specifier also give a reasonable representation. Chrono also provides to_rfc2822 and to_rfc3339 methods for well-known formats.

Chrono now also provides date formatting in almost any language without the help of an additional C library. This functionality is under the feature unstable-locales:

chrono = { version = "0.4", features = ["unstable-locales"] }

The unstable-locales feature requires and implies at least the alloc feature.

use chrono::prelude::*;

let dt = Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 11, 28, 12, 0, 9).unwrap();
assert_eq!(dt.format("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S").to_string(), "2014-11-28 12:00:09");
assert_eq!(dt.format("%a %b %e %T %Y").to_string(), "Fri Nov 28 12:00:09 2014");
    dt.format_localized("%A %e %B %Y, %T", Locale::fr_BE).to_string(),
    "vendredi 28 novembre 2014, 12:00:09"

assert_eq!(dt.format("%a %b %e %T %Y").to_string(), dt.format("%c").to_string());
assert_eq!(dt.to_string(), "2014-11-28 12:00:09 UTC");
assert_eq!(dt.to_rfc2822(), "Fri, 28 Nov 2014 12:00:09 +0000");
assert_eq!(dt.to_rfc3339(), "2014-11-28T12:00:09+00:00");
assert_eq!(format!("{:?}", dt), "2014-11-28T12:00:09Z");

// Note that milli/nanoseconds are only printed if they are non-zero
let dt_nano = NaiveDate::from_ymd_opt(2014, 11, 28)
    .and_hms_nano_opt(12, 0, 9, 1)
assert_eq!(format!("{:?}", dt_nano), "2014-11-28T12:00:09.000000001Z");

Parsing can be done with two methods:

  1. The standard FromStr trait (and parse method on a string) can be used for parsing DateTime<FixedOffset>, DateTime<Utc> and DateTime<Local> values. This parses what the {:?} (std::fmt::Debug format specifier prints, and requires the offset to be present.

  2. DateTime::parse_from_str parses a date and time with offsets and returns DateTime<FixedOffset>. This should be used when the offset is a part of input and the caller cannot guess that. It cannot be used when the offset can be missing. DateTime::parse_from_rfc2822 and DateTime::parse_from_rfc3339 are similar but for well-known formats.

More detailed control over the parsing process is available via format module.

use chrono::prelude::*;

let dt = Utc.with_ymd_and_hms(2014, 11, 28, 12, 0, 9).unwrap();
let fixed_dt = dt.with_timezone(&FixedOffset::east_opt(9 * 3600).unwrap());

// method 1
assert_eq!("2014-11-28T12:00:09Z".parse::<DateTime<Utc>>(), Ok(dt.clone()));
assert_eq!("2014-11-28T21:00:09+09:00".parse::<DateTime<Utc>>(), Ok(dt.clone()));
assert_eq!("2014-11-28T21:00:09+09:00".parse::<DateTime<FixedOffset>>(), Ok(fixed_dt.clone()));

// method 2
    DateTime::parse_from_str("2014-11-28 21:00:09 +09:00", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"),
    DateTime::parse_from_rfc2822("Fri, 28 Nov 2014 21:00:09 +0900"),
assert_eq!(DateTime::parse_from_rfc3339("2014-11-28T21:00:09+09:00"), Ok(fixed_dt.clone()));

// oops, the year is missing!
assert!(DateTime::parse_from_str("Fri Nov 28 12:00:09", "%a %b %e %T %Y").is_err());
// oops, the format string does not include the year at all!
assert!(DateTime::parse_from_str("Fri Nov 28 12:00:09", "%a %b %e %T").is_err());
// oops, the weekday is incorrect!
assert!(DateTime::parse_from_str("Sat Nov 28 12:00:09 2014", "%a %b %e %T %Y").is_err());

Again: See format::strftime documentation for full syntax and list of specifiers.

§Conversion from and to EPOCH timestamps

Use DateTime::from_timestamp(seconds, nanoseconds) to construct a DateTime<Utc> from a UNIX timestamp (seconds, nanoseconds that passed since January 1st 1970).

Use DateTime.timestamp to get the timestamp (in seconds) from a DateTime. Additionally, you can use DateTime.timestamp_subsec_nanos to get the number of additional number of nanoseconds.

// We need the trait in scope to use Utc::timestamp().
use chrono::{DateTime, Utc};

// Construct a datetime from epoch:
let dt: DateTime<Utc> = DateTime::from_timestamp(1_500_000_000, 0).unwrap();
assert_eq!(dt.to_rfc2822(), "Fri, 14 Jul 2017 02:40:00 +0000");

// Get epoch value from a datetime:
let dt = DateTime::parse_from_rfc2822("Fri, 14 Jul 2017 02:40:00 +0000").unwrap();
assert_eq!(dt.timestamp(), 1_500_000_000);

§Naive date and time

Chrono provides naive counterparts to Date, (non-existent) Time and DateTime as NaiveDate, NaiveTime and NaiveDateTime respectively.

They have almost equivalent interfaces as their timezone-aware twins, but are not associated to time zones obviously and can be quite low-level. They are mostly useful for building blocks for higher-level types.

Timezone-aware DateTime and Date types have two methods returning naive versions: naive_local returns a view to the naive local time, and naive_utc returns a view to the naive UTC time.


  • Only the proleptic Gregorian calendar (i.e. extended to support older dates) is supported.
  • Date types are limited to about +/- 262,000 years from the common epoch.
  • Time types are limited to nanosecond accuracy.
  • Leap seconds can be represented, but Chrono does not fully support them. See Leap Second Handling.

§Rust version requirements

The Minimum Supported Rust Version (MSRV) is currently Rust 1.61.0.

The MSRV is explicitly tested in CI. It may be bumped in minor releases, but this is not done lightly.

§Relation between chrono and time 0.1

Rust first had a time module added to std in its 0.7 release. It later moved to libextra, and then to a libtime library shipped alongside the standard library. In 2014 work on chrono started in order to provide a full-featured date and time library in Rust. Some improvements from chrono made it into the standard library; notably, chrono::Duration was included as std::time::Duration (rust#15934) in 2014.

In preparation of Rust 1.0 at the end of 2014 libtime was moved out of the Rust distro and into the time crate to eventually be redesigned (rust#18832, rust#18858), like the num and rand crates. Of course chrono kept its dependency on this time crate. time started re-exporting std::time::Duration during this period. Later, the standard library was changed to have a more limited unsigned Duration type (rust#24920, RFC 1040), while the time crate kept the full functionality with time::Duration. time::Duration had been a part of chrono’s public API.

By 2016 time 0.1 lived under the rust-lang-deprecated organisation and was not actively maintained (time#136). chrono absorbed the platform functionality and Duration type of the time crate in chrono#478 (the work started in chrono#286). In order to preserve compatibility with downstream crates depending on time and chrono sharing a Duration type, chrono kept depending on time 0.1. chrono offered the option to opt out of the time dependency by disabling the oldtime feature (swapping it out for an effectively similar chrono type). In 2019, @jhpratt took over maintenance on the time crate and released what amounts to a new crate as time 0.2.

§Security advisories

In November of 2020 CVE-2020-26235 and RUSTSEC-2020-0071 were opened against the time crate. @quininer had found that calls to localtime_r may be unsound (chrono#499). Eventually, almost a year later, this was also made into a security advisory against chrono as RUSTSEC-2020-0159, which had platform code similar to time.

On Unix-like systems a process is given a timezone id or description via the TZ environment variable. We need this timezone data to calculate the current local time from a value that is in UTC, such as the time from the system clock. time 0.1 and chrono used the POSIX function localtime_r to do the conversion to local time, which reads the TZ variable.

Rust assumes the environment to be writable and uses locks to access it from multiple threads. Some other programming languages and libraries use similar locking strategies, but these are typically not shared across languages. More importantly, POSIX declares modifying the environment in a multi-threaded process as unsafe, and getenv in libc can’t be changed to take a lock because it returns a pointer to the data (see rust#27970 for more discussion).

Since version 4.20 chrono no longer uses localtime_r, instead using Rust code to query the timezone (from the TZ variable or via iana-time-zone as a fallback) and work with data from the system timezone database directly. The code for this was forked from the tz-rs crate by @x-hgg-x. As such, chrono now respects the Rust lock when reading the TZ environment variable. In general, code should avoid modifying the environment.

§Removing time 0.1

Because time 0.1 has been unmaintained for years, however, the security advisory mentioned above has not been addressed. While chrono maintainers were careful not to break backwards compatibility with the time::Duration type, there has been a long stream of issues from users inquiring about the time 0.1 dependency with the vulnerability. We investigated the potential breakage of removing the time 0.1 dependency in chrono#1095 using a crater-like experiment and determined that the potential for breaking (public) dependencies is very low. We reached out to those few crates that did still depend on compatibility with time 0.1.

As such, for chrono 0.4.30 we have decided to swap out the time 0.1 Duration implementation for a local one that will offer a strict superset of the existing API going forward. This will prevent most downstream users from being affected by the security vulnerability in time 0.1 while minimizing the ecosystem impact of semver-incompatible version churn.



  • Formatting (and parsing) utilities for date and time.
  • Date and time types unconcerned with timezones.
  • The time zone, which calculates offsets from the local time to UTC.
  • A convenience module appropriate for glob imports (use chrono::prelude::*;).
  • rkyvrkyv or rkyv-16 or rkyv-32 or rkyv-64
    Zero-copy serialization/deserialization with rkyv.
  • Functionality for rounding or truncating a DateTime by a TimeDelta.
  • serdeserde
    Serialization/Deserialization with serde


  • DateDeprecated
    ISO 8601 calendar date with time zone.
  • ISO 8601 combined date and time with time zone.
  • A duration in calendar days.
  • The time zone with fixed offset, from UTC-23:59:59 to UTC+23:59:59.
  • Localclock
    The local timescale.
  • A duration in calendar months
  • ISO 8601 calendar date without timezone. Allows for every proleptic Gregorian date from Jan 1, 262145 BCE to Dec 31, 262143 CE. Also supports the conversion from ISO 8601 ordinal and week date.
  • ISO 8601 combined date and time without timezone.
  • ISO 8601 time without timezone. Allows for the nanosecond precision and optional leap second representation.
  • Out of range error type used in various converting APIs
  • Time duration with nanosecond precision.
  • The UTC time zone. This is the most efficient time zone when you don’t need the local time. It is also used as an offset (which is also a dummy type).


  • Localeunstable-locales
    L10n locales. Locales matching the locales in glibc.
  • The month of the year.
  • The day of week.


  • The common set of methods for date component.
  • The offset from the local time to UTC.
  • The time zone.
  • The common set of methods for time component.

Type Aliases§