Crate chrono [] [src]

Chrono 0.2.25

Date and time handling for Rust. (also known as rust-chrono) It aims to be a feature-complete superset of the time library. In particular,

  • Chrono strictly adheres to ISO 8601.
  • Chrono is timezone-aware by default, with separate timezone-naive types.
  • Chrono is space-optimal and (while not being the primary goal) reasonably efficient.

There were several previous attempts to bring a good date and time library to Rust, which Chrono builts upon and should acknowledge:


Put this in your Cargo.toml:

chrono = "0.2"

Or, if you want Serde or rustc-serialize support, include the features like this:

chrono = { version = "0.2", features = ["serde", "rustc-serialize"] }

Then put this in your crate root:

extern crate chrono;



Duration represents the magnitude of a time span. Duration used to be provided by Chrono. It has been moved to the time crate as the time::Duration type, but is still re-exported from Chrono.

Date and Time

Chrono provides a DateTime type to represent a date and a time in a timezone.

For more abstract moment-in-time tracking such as internal timekeeping that is unconcerned with timezones, consider time::SystemTime, which tracks your system clock, or time::Instant, which is an opaque but monotonically-increasing representation of a moment in time.

DateTime is timezone-aware and must be constructed from the TimeZone object, which defines how the local date is converted to and back from the UTC date. There are three well-known TimeZone implementations:

  • UTC specifies the UTC time zone. It is most efficient.

  • Local specifies the system local time zone.

  • FixedOffset specifies an arbitrary, fixed time zone such as UTC+09:00 or UTC-10:30. This often results from the parsed textual date and time. Since it stores the most information and does not depend on the system environment, you would want to normalize other TimeZones into this type.

DateTimes with different TimeZone types are distinct and do not mix, but can be converted to each other using the DateTime::with_timezone method.

You can get the current date and time in the UTC time zone (UTC::now()) or in the local time zone (Local::now()).

use chrono::*;

let utc: DateTime<UTC> = UTC::now();       // e.g. `2014-11-28T12:45:59.324310806Z`
let local: DateTime<Local> = Local::now(); // e.g. `2014-11-28T21:45:59.324310806+09:00`

Alternatively, you can create your own date and time. This is a bit verbose due to Rust's lack of function and method overloading, but in turn we get a rich combination of initialization methods.

use chrono::*;

let dt = UTC.ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms(9, 10, 11); // `2014-07-08T09:10:11Z`
// July 8 is 188th day of the year 2014 (`o` for "ordinal")
assert_eq!(dt, UTC.yo(2014, 189).and_hms(9, 10, 11));
// July 8 is Tuesday in ISO week 28 of the year 2014.
assert_eq!(dt, UTC.isoywd(2014, 28, Weekday::Tue).and_hms(9, 10, 11));

let dt = UTC.ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_milli(9, 10, 11, 12); // `2014-07-08T09:10:11.012Z`
assert_eq!(dt, UTC.ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_micro(9, 10, 11, 12_000));
assert_eq!(dt, UTC.ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_nano(9, 10, 11, 12_000_000));

// dynamic verification
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_opt(21, 15, 33),
           LocalResult::Single(UTC.ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms(21, 15, 33)));
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd_opt(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_opt(80, 15, 33), LocalResult::None);
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd_opt(2014, 7, 38).and_hms_opt(21, 15, 33), LocalResult::None);

// other time zone objects can be used to construct a local datetime.
// obviously, `local_dt` is normally different from `dt`, but `fixed_dt` should be identical.
let local_dt = Local.ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_milli(9, 10, 11, 12);
let fixed_dt = FixedOffset::east(9 * 3600).ymd(2014, 7, 8).and_hms_milli(18, 10, 11, 12);
assert_eq!(dt, fixed_dt);

Various properties are available to the date and time, and can be altered individually. Most of them are defined in the traits Datelike and Timelike which you should use before. Addition and subtraction is also supported. The following illustrates most supported operations to the date and time:

use chrono::*;

// assume this returned `2014-11-28T21:45:59.324310806+09:00`:
let dt = Local::now();

// property accessors
assert_eq!((dt.year(), dt.month(),, (2014, 11, 28));
assert_eq!((dt.month0(), dt.day0()), (10, 27)); // for unfortunate souls
assert_eq!((dt.hour(), dt.minute(), dt.second()), (21, 45, 59));
assert_eq!(dt.weekday(), Weekday::Fri);
assert_eq!(dt.weekday().number_from_monday(), 5); // Mon=1, ..., Sat=7
assert_eq!(dt.ordinal(), 332); // the day of year
assert_eq!(dt.num_days_from_ce(), 735565); // the number of days from and including Jan 1, 1

// time zone accessor and manipulation
assert_eq!(dt.offset().local_minus_utc(), Duration::hours(9));
assert_eq!(dt.timezone(), FixedOffset::east(9 * 3600));
assert_eq!(dt.with_timezone(&UTC), UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 28).and_hms_nano(12, 45, 59, 324310806));

// a sample of property manipulations (validates dynamically)
assert_eq!(dt.with_day(29).unwrap().weekday(), Weekday::Sat); // 2014-11-29 is Saturday
assert_eq!(dt.with_day(32), None);
assert_eq!(dt.with_year(-300).unwrap().num_days_from_ce(), -109606); // November 29, 301 BCE

// arithmetic operations
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 14).and_hms(8, 9, 10) - UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 14).and_hms(10, 9, 8),
           Duration::seconds(-2 * 3600 + 2));
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd(1970, 1, 1).and_hms(0, 0, 0) + Duration::seconds(1_000_000_000),
           UTC.ymd(2001, 9, 9).and_hms(1, 46, 40));
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd(1970, 1, 1).and_hms(0, 0, 0) - Duration::seconds(1_000_000_000),
           UTC.ymd(1938, 4, 24).and_hms(22, 13, 20));

Formatting is done via the format method, which format is equivalent to the familiar strftime format. (See the format::strftime module documentation for full syntax.)

The default to_string method and {:?} specifier also give a reasonable representation. Chrono also provides to_rfc2822 and to_rfc3339 methods for well-known formats.

use chrono::*;

let dt = UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 28).and_hms(12, 0, 9);
assert_eq!(dt.format("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S").to_string(), "2014-11-28 12:00:09");
assert_eq!(dt.format("%a %b %e %T %Y").to_string(), "Fri Nov 28 12:00:09 2014");
assert_eq!(dt.format("%a %b %e %T %Y").to_string(), dt.format("%c").to_string());

assert_eq!(dt.to_string(), "2014-11-28 12:00:09 UTC");
assert_eq!(dt.to_rfc2822(), "Fri, 28 Nov 2014 12:00:09 +0000");
assert_eq!(dt.to_rfc3339(), "2014-11-28T12:00:09+00:00");
assert_eq!(format!("{:?}", dt), "2014-11-28T12:00:09Z");

Parsing can be done with three methods:

  1. The standard FromStr trait (and parse method on a string) can be used for parsing DateTime<FixedOffset>, DateTime<UTC> and DateTime<Local> values. This parses what the {:?} (std::fmt::Debug) format specifier prints, and requires the offset to be present.

  2. DateTime::parse_from_str parses a date and time with offsets and returns DateTime<FixedOffset>. This should be used when the offset is a part of input and the caller cannot guess that. It cannot be used when the offset can be missing. DateTime::parse_from_rfc2822 and DateTime::parse_from_rfc3339 are similar but for well-known formats.

  3. Offset::datetime_from_str is similar but returns DateTime of given offset. When the explicit offset is missing from the input, it simply uses given offset. It issues an error when the input contains an explicit offset different from the current offset.

More detailed control over the parsing process is available via format module.

use chrono::*;

let dt = UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 28).and_hms(12, 0, 9);
let fixed_dt = dt.with_timezone(&FixedOffset::east(9*3600));

// method 1
assert_eq!("2014-11-28T12:00:09Z".parse::<DateTime<UTC>>(), Ok(dt.clone()));
assert_eq!("2014-11-28T21:00:09+09:00".parse::<DateTime<UTC>>(), Ok(dt.clone()));
assert_eq!("2014-11-28T21:00:09+09:00".parse::<DateTime<FixedOffset>>(), Ok(fixed_dt.clone()));

// method 2
assert_eq!(DateTime::parse_from_str("2014-11-28 21:00:09 +09:00", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"),
assert_eq!(DateTime::parse_from_rfc2822("Fri, 28 Nov 2014 21:00:09 +0900"),
assert_eq!(DateTime::parse_from_rfc3339("2014-11-28T21:00:09+09:00"), Ok(fixed_dt.clone()));

// method 3
assert_eq!(UTC.datetime_from_str("2014-11-28 12:00:09", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"), Ok(dt.clone()));
assert_eq!(UTC.datetime_from_str("Fri Nov 28 12:00:09 2014", "%a %b %e %T %Y"), Ok(dt.clone()));

// oops, the year is missing!
assert!(UTC.datetime_from_str("Fri Nov 28 12:00:09", "%a %b %e %T %Y").is_err());
// oops, the format string does not include the year at all!
assert!(UTC.datetime_from_str("Fri Nov 28 12:00:09", "%a %b %e %T").is_err());
// oops, the weekday is incorrect!
assert!(UTC.datetime_from_str("Sat Nov 28 12:00:09 2014", "%a %b %e %T %Y").is_err());

Individual date

Chrono also provides an individual date type (Date). It also has time zones attached, and have to be constructed via time zones. Most operations available to DateTime are also available to Date whenever appropriate.

use chrono::*;

assert_eq!(UTC::today(), UTC::now().date());
assert_eq!(Local::today(), Local::now().date());

assert_eq!(UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 28).weekday(), Weekday::Fri);
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd_opt(2014, 11, 31), LocalResult::None);
assert_eq!(UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 28).and_hms_milli(7, 8, 9, 10).format("%H%M%S").to_string(),

There is no timezone-aware Time due to the lack of usefulness and also the complexity.

DateTime has date method which returns a Date which represents its date component. There is also a time method, which simply returns a naive local time described below.

Naive date and time

Chrono provides naive counterparts to Date, (non-existent) Time and DateTime as NaiveDate, NaiveTime and NaiveDateTime respectively.

They have almost equivalent interfaces as their timezone-aware twins, but are not associated to time zones obviously and can be quite low-level. They are mostly useful for building blocks for higher-level types.

Timezone-aware DateTime and Date types have two methods returning naive versions: naive_local returns a view to the naive local time, and naive_utc returns a view to the naive UTC time.


Only proleptic Gregorian calendar (i.e. extended to support older dates) is supported. Be very careful if you really have to deal with pre-20C dates, they can be in Julian or others.

Date types are limited in about +/- 262,000 years from the common epoch. Time types are limited in the nanosecond accuracy.

Leap seconds are supported in the representation but Chrono doesn't try to make use of them. (The main reason is that leap seconds are not really predictable.) Almost every operation over the possible leap seconds will ignore them. Consider using NaiveDateTime with the implicit TAI (International Atomic Time) scale if you want.

Chrono inherently does not support an inaccurate or partial date and time representation. Any operation that can be ambiguous will return None in such cases. For example, "a month later" of 2014-01-30 is not well-defined and consequently UTC.ymd(2014, 1, 30).with_month(2) returns None.

Advanced time zone handling is not yet supported (but is planned in 0.3).


pub use offset::{TimeZone, Offset, LocalResult};
pub use offset::utc::UTC;
pub use offset::fixed::FixedOffset;
pub use offset::local::Local;
pub use naive::date::NaiveDate;
pub use naive::time::NaiveTime;
pub use naive::datetime::NaiveDateTime;
pub use date::Date;
pub use datetime::DateTime;
pub use format::{ParseError, ParseResult};



ISO 8601 calendar date with time zone.


ISO 8601 date and time with time zone.


ISO 8601 duration.


Formatting utilities for date and time.


Date and time types which do not concern about the timezones.


The time zone, which calculates offsets from the local time to UTC.



ISO 8601 time duration with nanosecond precision. This also allows for the negative duration; see individual methods for details.



The day of week.



The common set of methods for date component.


The common set of methods for time component.