# [−][src]Crate challenge_bypass_ristretto

# challenge-bypass-ristretto

**A rust implemention of the
privacy pass cryptographic protocol
using the Ristretto group.**

This library utilizes the wonderful curve25519-dalek which is a pure-Rust implementation of group operations on Ristretto.

It is only an implementation of the cryptographic protocol, it does not provide a service or FFI for use by other languages.

**This crate is still a work in progress and is not yet recommended for external use.**

# FFI

This library exposes some functions intended to assist FFI creation but does not implement a FFI itself.

For FFI see challenge-bypass-ristretto-ffi.

# Blinded Tokens

As originally implemented in the challenge bypass server and extension repositories, blinded tokens enable internet users to anonymously bypass internet challenges (CAPTCHAs).

In this use case, upon completing a CAPTCHA a user is issued tokens which can be redeemed in place of completing further CAPTCHAs. The issuer can verify that the tokens are valid but cannot determine which user they were issued to.

This method of token creation is generally useful as it allows for authorization in a way that is unlinkable. This library is intended for use in applications where these combined properties may be useful.

A short description of the protocol follows, a more detailed writeup is also available.

The blinded token protocol has two parties and two stages. A client and issuer first perform the signing stage, after which the client is able to derive tokens which can later be used in the redemption phase.

## Signing

The client prepares random tokens, blinds those tokens such that the issuer cannot determine the original token value, and sends them to the issuer. The issuer signs the tokens using a secret key and returns them to the client. The client then reverses the original blind to yield a signed token.

## Redemption

The client proves the validity of their signed token to the server. The server marks the token as spent so it cannot be used again.

# Use

**WARNING** this library has not been audited, use at your own risk!

## Example Usage

See `tests/e2e.rs`

.

## Security Contract

This software attempts to ensure the following:

- The signing server / issuer cannot link the blinded token it sees during signing with the token preimage or other info that is used at the time of redemption.
- The client cannot create a valid signed token without performing the VOPRF protocol with the server. Each protocol run produces a single valid token which cannot be used to create additional valid tokens.

Given that:

- The client keeps the blind secret, at time of issuance only sends the blinded token and at time of redemption only sends the payload, verification signature and token preimage. The client verifies the DLEQ proof that tokens were signed by a public key which was committed to previously and not a key unique to the user. The client ensures that other out of band markers like IP addresses cannot be used to uniquely link issuance and verification.
- The server keeps the signing key secret. The server marks a token preimage as spent after the first successful redemption.

## Features

By default this crate uses `std`

and the `u64_backend`

of curve25519-dalek. However it is `no-std`

compatible and the other `curve25519-dalek`

backends can be selected.

The optional features include `base64`

and `serde`

.

`base64`

exposes methods for base64 encoding / decoding of the various structures.`serde`

implements the serde`Serialize`

/`Deserialize`

traits.

`merlin`

is an experimental feature that uses merlin to implement the DLEQ proofs. This diverges from
the original protocol specified in the privacy pass paper. It is not yet stable / intended for use and
is implemented in `src/dleq_merlin.rs`

.

# Development

Install rust.

## Building

Run `cargo build`

## Testing

Run `cargo test`

# Cryptographic Protocol

## Notation

We have tried to align notation with that used in the paper Privacy Pass: Bypassing Internet Challenges Anonymously sections 3 and 4.

## Description

Let \(\mathbb{G}\) be a group (written multiplicatively) of prime order \(q\) with generator \(X\). In this implementation we are using Ristretto.

Let \(\lambda\) be a security parameter.

The protocol requires three hashing functions, they are assumed to be random oracles:

\(H_1() \rightarrow \mathbb{G}\) which hashes to the group, it must ensure the discrete log with respect to other points is unknown.

In this implementation we are using `RistrettoPoint::from_uniform_bytes`

which uses Elligator2.

\(H_2() \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{\lambda}\) which hashes to bitstrings.

\(H_3() \rightarrow \{0,1\}^{\lambda}\) which hashes to bitstrings.

### Setup

The server generates a signing keypair, consisting of a secret key, \(k\), which is a random `Scalar`

and a commitment to that secret key in the form of a `PublicKey`

.

\(Y = X^k\)

### DLEQ Proof

A `DLEQProof`

seeks to show that for some \(Y = X^{k_1}\) and some
\(Q = P^{k_2}\) that \(k_1 = k_2\).

To do so the prover first generates a random `Scalar`

\(t\) and commits
to it with respect to \(X\) and \(P\).

\(A = X^t\)

\(B = P^t\)

The prover then computes \(c = H_3(X, Y, P, Q, A, B)\) and \(s = (t - ck) \mod q\).

The `DLEQProof`

\((c, s)\) is then sent to the verifier.

The verifier computes \(A'\), \(B'\), and \(c'\) then verifies \(c'\) equals \(c\).

\(A' = X^s \cdot Y^c = X^{t-ck} \cdot X^{ck} = X^t\)

\(B' = P^s \cdot Q^c = P^{t-ck} \cdot P^{ck} = P^t\)

\(c' = H_3(X, Y, P, Q, A', B')\)

\(c' \stackrel{?}{=} c\)

### Batch Proof

It is possible to construct a `BatchDLEQProof`

over `m`

instantiations
of the original DLEQ proof if \(X\) and \(Y\) remain constant.

First the prover calculates \(w\) which is used to seed a PRNG.

\(w \leftarrow H(X, Y, \{ P_i \} _{i \in m} ,\{ Q_i \} _{i \in m })\)

Next, `m`

`Scalar`

s are sampled from the seeded PRNG.

\(c_1, \ldots , c_m \leftarrow PRNG(w)\)

The prover generates the composite elements.

\(M = P_1^{c_1} \cdot \ldots \cdot P_m^{c_m}\)

\(Z = Q_1^{c_1} \cdot \ldots \cdot Q_m^{c_m}\)

A normal `DLEQProof`

is then constructed and sent to the user.

\((c, s) \leftarrow DLEQ_k(X, Y, M, Z)\)

The verifier recalculates \(w\), samples `m`

`Scalar`

s and re-computes \(M\) and
\(Z\).

Finally the verifier checks the `DLEQProof`

as described above.

### Signing

The user generates N pairs (referred to as `Token`

s) which each consist
of a random value and a random blinding factor.

The random value \(t\) we'll refer to as a `TokenPreimage`

.
The random blinding factor \(r\) is a `Scalar`

.

Given the hash function \(H_1\) we can derive a point `T`

.

\(T = H_1(t)\)

The user blinds each `Token`

forming a `BlindedToken`

, point \(P\), by performing a scalar multiplication.

\(P = T^r\)

The user sends the N `BlindedToken`

s to the server.

The server signs each `BlindedToken`

using it's `SigningKey`

, resulting in a `SignedToken`

, point \(Q\).

\(Q = P^k = T^{rk}\)

The server also creates a `BatchDLEQProof`

showing all `BlindedToken`

s were signed
by the same `SigningKey`

as described above.

The user receives N `SignedToken`

s from the server as well as the
`BatchDLEQProof`

.

The user verifies the proof and uses the original blinding
factor \(r\) from the corresponding `Token`

to unblind each
`SignedToken`

.

This results in N `UnblindedToken`

s, each consisting of the unblinded signed point \(W\)
and the `TokenPreimage`

, \(t\).

\(W = Q^{1/r} = T^k\)

### Redemption

At redemption time, the user takes one `UnblindedToken`

and derives the
shared `VerificationKey`

, \(K\).

\(K = H_2(t, W)\)

The user uses the shared `VerificationKey`

to "sign" a message, \(R\)
and sends the `TokenPreimage`

and resulting MAC `VerificationSignature`

to
the server.

\(MAC_K(R)\)

The server re-derives the `UnblindedToken`

from the `TokenPreimage`

and it's `SigningKey`

. Then it derives the shared `VerificationKey`

and checks the included `VerificationSignature`

.

\(T' = H_1(t)\)

\(W' = (T')^k\)

\(K' = H_2(t, W')\)

\(MAC_K(R) \stackrel{?}{=} MAC_{K'}(R)\)

If the verification succeeds then the server checks \(t\), the `TokenPreimage`

,
to see if it has been previously spent. If not, the redemption succeeds
and it is marked as spent.

## Modules

dleq | |

errors | Errors which may occur when parsing keys and/or tokens to or from wire formats, or verifying proofs. |

macros | |

oprf | |

voprf | An implementation of a verifiable oblivious pseudorandom function |