Crate canonical_json [] [src]

Serialization and deserialization for Canonical JSON.

What is Canonical JSON?

Canonical JSON is a subset of JSON in which values each have a single, unambiguous serialized form. It provides meaningful and repeatable hashes of encoded data. Canonical JSON is parsable with any full JSON parser.

Data types that can be represented include booleans, integers, strings, arrays, maps and null values. See Value for more details.

Compared to JSON

  • Whitespace between tokens is disallowed. Leading and trailing whitespace is likewise disallowed.
  • Floating point numbers, exponents and "minus zero" are all disallowed.
  • Object keys must appear in lexiographical order and must not be repeated.
  • Strings are uninterpreted bytes, with the only escaped byte values being backslash and quote. Escaping is mandatory for those two characters.
  • String contents are not guaranteed be parsable as UTF-8. Be aware that encoded data may contain embedded control characters and nulls.

Note: This library deviates from the spec by additionally requiring that strings are, in fact, valid UTF-8. This is a convenience tradeoff so that users get to handle strings directly rather than converting back-and-forth between raw bytes.


This JSON value:

  "foo": "bar",
  "abc": 9e3,
  "snowman": "\u2603",

becomes this in Canonical JSON:


Type-based serialization and deserialization

Structs and enums can be serialized and deserialized to/from Canonical JSON without writing boilerplate code. To do this, it must implement the Serialize and Deserialize traits. Serde provides provides an annotation to automatically derive these traits.

To derive Serialize and Deserialize, add this to your crate root:


extern crate serde_derive;

then annotate your data structure like this:

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct Point {
    x: i64,
    y: i64,

Note: Struct fields must be defined in lexiographical order when deriving Serialize.

To customize how a data structure is serialized, for example by renaming fields, see the Serde documentation on attributes.

Examples of use

Serializing and deserializing a struct


extern crate serde_derive;
extern crate canonical_json;

#[derive(Debug, Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct Point {
    x: i64,
    y: i64,

fn main() {
    let point = Point { x: 1, y: 2 };

    let point_string: String = canonical_json::to_string(&point).unwrap();
    println!("{}", point_string);
    // {"x":1,"y":2}

    let point: Point = canonical_json::from_str(&point_string).unwrap();
    println!("{:?}", point);
    // Point { x: 1, y: 2 }

Parsing a str into a generic Canonical JSON Value

extern crate canonical_json;

use canonical_json::Value;

fn main() {
    let value: Value = canonical_json::from_str(r#"{"bar":"baz","foo":13}"#).unwrap();
    println!("value: {:?}", value);
    // value: {"bar":"baz","foo":13}
    println!("object? {}", value.is_object());
    // object? true

    let obj = value.as_object().unwrap();
    let foo = obj.get("foo").unwrap();
    println!("array? {:?}", foo.as_array());
    // array? None
    println!("u64? {:?}", foo.as_u64());
    // u64? Some(13u64)

    for (key, value) in obj.iter() {
        println!("{}: {}", key, match *value {
            Value::U64(v) => format!("{} (u64)", v),
            Value::String(ref v) => format!("{} (string)", v),
            _ => format!("other")
    // bar: baz (string)
    // foo: 13 (u64)

Calculating a checksum of a regular JSON document


extern crate canonical_json;
extern crate serde_json;
extern crate ring;

use std::convert::TryFrom;

use canonical_json as cjson;
use serde_json as json;
use ring::digest;

fn main() {
    // Whitespace and the order of keys can be changed here
    // while the checksum below will stay the same
    let json_str: &'static str = r#"
            "when you press": {
                "a": "parachute goes up",
                "b": "parachute turns green"

    let value: json::Value = json::from_str(json_str).unwrap();
    let canonical_value: cjson::Value = cjson::Value::try_from(value).unwrap();
    let canonical_json_str: String = cjson::to_string(&canonical_value).unwrap();
    let checksum = digest::digest(&digest::SHA256, canonical_json_str.as_bytes());
    println!("{}", hex_from_bytes(checksum.as_ref()));
    // 8b3199db606876d3ac0d9e678090c87e96ba4ba2c241e27e3e44e2bb102ce1

fn hex_from_bytes(bytes: &[u8]) -> String {
    use std::fmt::Write;

    let mut hex = String::new();
    for &byte in bytes {
        write!(&mut hex, "{:x}", byte).unwrap();


pub use self::de::{Deserializer, StreamDeserializer, from_iter, from_reader, from_slice, from_str};
pub use self::error::{Error, SyntaxError};
pub use self::ser::{Serializer, to_string, to_vec, to_writer};
pub use self::value::{Value, from_value, to_value};



Deserialize bytes into JSON values.


Errors encountered during serialization and deserialization.


Serialize JSON values into bytes.


A type representing a JSON value.