[][src]Module bastion_executor::blocking

A thread pool for running blocking functions asynchronously.

Blocking thread pool consists of four elements:

  • Frequency Detector
  • Trend Estimator
  • Predictive Upscaler
  • Time-based Downscaler

Frequency Detector

Detects how many tasks are submitted from scheduler to thread pool in a given time frame. Pool manager thread does this sampling every 200 milliseconds. This value is going to be used for trend estimation phase.

Trend Estimator

Hold up to the given number of frequencies to create an estimation. Trend estimator holds 10 frequencies at a time. This value is stored as constant in FREQUENCY_QUEUE_SIZE. Estimation algorithm and prediction uses Exponentially Weighted Moving Average algorithm.

This algorithm is adapted from A Novel Predictive and Self–Adaptive Dynamic Thread Pool Management and altered to:

  • use instead of heavy calculation of trend, utilize thread redundancy which is the sum of the differences between the predicted and observed value.
  • use instead of linear trend estimation, it uses exponential trend estimation where formula is:
LOW_WATERMARK * (predicted - observed) + LOW_WATERMARK

NOTE: If this algorithm wants to be tweaked increasing LOW_WATERMARK will automatically adapt the additional dynamic thread spawn count

  • operate without watermarking by timestamps (in paper which is used to measure algorithms own performance during the execution)
  • operate extensive subsampling. Extensive subsampling congests the pool manager thread.
  • operate without keeping track of idle time of threads or job out queue like TEMA and FOPS implementations.

Predictive Upscaler

Upscaler has three cases (also can be seen in paper):

  • The rate slightly increases and there are many idle threads.
  • The number of worker threads tends to be reduced since the workload of the system is descending.
  • The system has no request or stalled. (Our case here is when the current tasks block further tasks from being processed – throughput hogs)

For the first two EMA calculation and exponential trend estimation gives good performance. For the last case, upscaler selects upscaling amount by amount of tasks mapped when throughput hogs happen.

example scenario: Let's say we have 10_000 tasks where every one of them is blocking for 1 second. Scheduler will map plenty of tasks but will got rejected. This makes estimation calculation nearly 0 for both entering and exiting parts. When this happens and we still see tasks mapped from scheduler. We start to slowly increase threads by amount of frequency linearly. High increase of this value either make us hit to the thread threshold on some OS or make congestion on the other thread utilizations of the program, because of context switch.

Throughput hogs determined by a combination of job in / job out frequency and current scheduler task assignment frequency. Threshold of EMA difference is eluded by machine epsilon for floating point arithmetic errors.

Time-based Downscaler

When threads becomes idle, they will not shut down immediately. Instead, they wait a random amount between 1 and 11 seconds to even out the load.



Affinity pinner for blocking pool Pinning isn't going to be enabled for single core systems.


Low watermark value, defines the bare minimum of the pool. Spawns initial thread set. Can be configurable with env var BASTION_BLOCKING_THREADS at runtime.


Spawns a blocking task.