Crate axum

source ·
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axum is a web application framework that focuses on ergonomics and modularity.

§Table of contents

§High-level features

  • Route requests to handlers with a macro-free API.
  • Declaratively parse requests using extractors.
  • Simple and predictable error handling model.
  • Generate responses with minimal boilerplate.
  • Take full advantage of the tower and tower-http ecosystem of middleware, services, and utilities.

In particular, the last point is what sets axum apart from other frameworks. axum doesn’t have its own middleware system but instead uses tower::Service. This means axum gets timeouts, tracing, compression, authorization, and more, for free. It also enables you to share middleware with applications written using hyper or tonic.


axum is designed to work with tokio and hyper. Runtime and transport layer independence is not a goal, at least for the time being.


The “Hello, World!” of axum is:

use axum::{

async fn main() {
    // build our application with a single route
    let app = Router::new().route("/", get(|| async { "Hello, World!" }));

    // run our app with hyper, listening globally on port 3000
    let listener = tokio::net::TcpListener::bind("").await.unwrap();
    axum::serve(listener, app).await.unwrap();

Note using #[tokio::main] requires you enable tokio’s macros and rt-multi-thread features or just full to enable all features (cargo add tokio --features macros,rt-multi-thread).


Router is used to set up which paths goes to which services:

use axum::{Router, routing::get};

// our router
let app = Router::new()
    .route("/", get(root))
    .route("/foo", get(get_foo).post(post_foo))
    .route("/foo/bar", get(foo_bar));

// which calls one of these handlers
async fn root() {}
async fn get_foo() {}
async fn post_foo() {}
async fn foo_bar() {}

See Router for more details on routing.


In axum a “handler” is an async function that accepts zero or more “extractors” as arguments and returns something that can be converted into a response.

Handlers are where your application logic lives and axum applications are built by routing between handlers.

See handler for more details on handlers.


An extractor is a type that implements FromRequest or FromRequestParts. Extractors are how you pick apart the incoming request to get the parts your handler needs.

use axum::extract::{Path, Query, Json};
use std::collections::HashMap;

// `Path` gives you the path parameters and deserializes them.
async fn path(Path(user_id): Path<u32>) {}

// `Query` gives you the query parameters and deserializes them.
async fn query(Query(params): Query<HashMap<String, String>>) {}

// Buffer the request body and deserialize it as JSON into a
// `serde_json::Value`. `Json` supports any type that implements
// `serde::Deserialize`.
async fn json(Json(payload): Json<serde_json::Value>) {}

See extract for more details on extractors.


Anything that implements IntoResponse can be returned from handlers.

use axum::{
use serde_json::{Value, json};

// `&'static str` becomes a `200 OK` with `content-type: text/plain; charset=utf-8`
async fn plain_text() -> &'static str {

// `Json` gives a content-type of `application/json` and works with any type
// that implements `serde::Serialize`
async fn json() -> Json<Value> {
    Json(json!({ "data": 42 }))

let app = Router::new()
    .route("/plain_text", get(plain_text))
    .route("/json", get(json));

See response for more details on building responses.

§Error handling

axum aims to have a simple and predictable error handling model. That means it is simple to convert errors into responses and you are guaranteed that all errors are handled.

See error_handling for more details on axum’s error handling model and how to handle errors gracefully.


There are several different ways to write middleware for axum. See middleware for more details.

§Sharing state with handlers

It is common to share some state between handlers. For example, a pool of database connections or clients to other services may need to be shared.

The three most common ways of doing that are:

  • Using the State extractor
  • Using request extensions
  • Using closure captures

§Using the State extractor

use axum::{
use std::sync::Arc;

struct AppState {
    // ...

let shared_state = Arc::new(AppState { /* ... */ });

let app = Router::new()
    .route("/", get(handler))

async fn handler(
    State(state): State<Arc<AppState>>,
) {
    // ...

You should prefer using State if possible since it’s more type safe. The downside is that it’s less dynamic than request extensions.

See State for more details about accessing state.

§Using request extensions

Another way to extract state in handlers is using Extension as layer and extractor:

use axum::{
use std::sync::Arc;

struct AppState {
    // ...

let shared_state = Arc::new(AppState { /* ... */ });

let app = Router::new()
    .route("/", get(handler))

async fn handler(
    Extension(state): Extension<Arc<AppState>>,
) {
    // ...

The downside to this approach is that you’ll get runtime errors (specifically a 500 Internal Server Error response) if you try and extract an extension that doesn’t exist, perhaps because you forgot to add the middleware or because you’re extracting the wrong type.

§Using closure captures

State can also be passed directly to handlers using closure captures:

use axum::{
    extract::{Extension, Path},
    routing::{get, post},
use std::sync::Arc;
use serde::Deserialize;

struct AppState {
    // ...

let shared_state = Arc::new(AppState { /* ... */ });

let app = Router::new()
            let shared_state = Arc::clone(&shared_state);
            move |body| create_user(body, shared_state)
            let shared_state = Arc::clone(&shared_state);
            move |path| get_user(path, shared_state)

async fn get_user(Path(user_id): Path<String>, state: Arc<AppState>) {
    // ...

async fn create_user(Json(payload): Json<CreateUserPayload>, state: Arc<AppState>) {
    // ...

struct CreateUserPayload {
    // ...

The downside to this approach is that it’s a little more verbose than using State or extensions.

§Building integrations for axum

Libraries authors that want to provide FromRequest, FromRequestParts, or IntoResponse implementations should depend on the axum-core crate, instead of axum if possible. axum-core contains core types and traits and is less likely to receive breaking changes.

§Required dependencies

To use axum there are a few dependencies you have to pull in as well:

axum = "<latest-version>"
tokio = { version = "<latest-version>", features = ["full"] }
tower = "<latest-version>"

The "full" feature for tokio isn’t necessary but it’s the easiest way to get started.

Tower isn’t strictly necessary either but helpful for testing. See the testing example in the repo to learn more about testing axum apps.


The axum repo contains a number of examples that show how to put all the pieces together.

§Feature flags

axum uses a set of feature flags to reduce the amount of compiled and optional dependencies.

The following optional features are available:

http1Enables hyper’s http1 featureYes
http2Enables hyper’s http2 featureNo
jsonEnables the Json type and some similar convenience functionalityYes
macrosEnables optional utility macrosNo
matched-pathEnables capturing of every request’s router path and the MatchedPath extractorYes
multipartEnables parsing multipart/form-data requests with MultipartNo
original-uriEnables capturing of every request’s original URI and the OriginalUri extractorYes
tokioEnables tokio as a dependency and axum::serve, SSE and extract::connect_info types.Yes
tower-logEnables tower’s log featureYes
tracingLog rejections from built-in extractorsYes
wsEnables WebSockets support via extract::wsNo
formEnables the Form extractorYes
queryEnables the Query extractorYes



  • HTTP body utilities.
  • Error handling model and utilities
  • Types and traits for extracting data from requests.
  • Async functions that can be used to handle requests.
  • Utilities for writing middleware
  • Types and traits for generating responses.
  • Routing between Services and handlers.
  • servetokio and (http1 or http2)
    Serve services.


  • Errors that can happen when using axum.
  • Extractor and response for extensions.
  • Formform
    URL encoded extractor and response.
  • Jsonjson
    JSON Extractor / Response.
  • The router type for composing handlers and services.



  • servetokio and (http1 or http2)
    Serve the service with the supplied listener.

Type Aliases§

  • Alias for a type-erased error type.

Attribute Macros§

  • Generates better error messages when applied handler functions.