[][src]Crate askama

Askama implements a type-safe compiler for Jinja-like templates. It lets you write templates in a Jinja-like syntax, which are linked to a struct defining the template context. This is done using a custom derive implementation (implemented in askama_derive).

For feature highlights and a quick start, please review the README.

Creating Askama templates

An Askama template is a struct definition which provides the template context combined with a UTF-8 encoded text file (or inline source, see below). Askama can be used to generate any kind of text-based format. The template file's extension may be used to provide content type hints.

A template consists of text contents, which are passed through as-is, expressions, which get replaced with content while being rendered, and tags, which control the template's logic. The template syntax is very similar to Jinja, as well as Jinja-derivatives like Twig or Tera.

The template() attribute

Askama works by generating one or more trait implementations for any struct type decorated with the #[derive(Template)] attribute. The code generation process takes some options that can be specified through the template() attribute. The following sub-attributes are currently recognized:

  • path (as path = "foo.html"): sets the path to the template file. The path is interpreted as relative to the configured template directories (by default, this is a templates directory next to your Cargo.toml). The file name extension is used to infer an escape mode (see below). In web framework integrations, the path's extension may also be used to infer the content type of the resulting response. Cannot be used together with source.
  • source (as source = "{{ foo }}"): directly sets the template source. This can be useful for test cases or short templates. The generated path is undefined, which generally makes it impossible to refer to this template from other templates. If source is specified, ext must also be specified (see below). Cannot be used together with path.
  • ext (as ext = "txt"): lets you specify the content type as a file extension. This is used to infer an escape mode (see below), and some web framework integrations use it to determine the content type. Cannot be used together with path.
  • print (as print = "code"): enable debugging by printing nothing (none), the parsed syntax tree (ast), the generated code (code) or all for both. The requested data will be printed to stdout at compile time.
  • escape (as escape = "none"): set the escape mode for expression output; the currently implemented modes are none and html. Askama infers the escape mode from the template file name (with path) or specified extension (ext): if the extension is html, htm or xml, the html escape mode is used; otherwise, no implicit escaping is done. Setting an escape mode explicitly overrides the inferred value.
  • syntax (as syntax = "foo"): set the syntax name for a parser defined in the configuration file. The default syntax , "default", is the one provided by Askama.


At compile time, Askama will read optional configuration values from askama.toml in the crate root (the directory where Cargo.toml can be found). Currently, this covers the directories to search for templates, as well as custom syntax configuration.

This example file demonstrates the default configuration:

# Directories to search for templates, relative to the crate root.
dirs = ["templates"]

Here is an example that defines two custom syntaxes:

default_syntax = "foo"

name = "foo"
block_start = "%{"
comment_start = "#{"
expr_end = "^^"

name = "bar"
block_start = "%%"
block_end = "%%"
comment_start = "%#"
expr_start = "%{"

A syntax block consists of at least the attribute name which uniquely names this syntax in the project.

The following keys can currently be used to customize template syntax:

  • block_start, defaults to {%
  • block_end, defaults to %}
  • comment_start, defaults to {#
  • comment_end, defaults to #}
  • expr_start, defaults to {{
  • expr_end, defaults to }}

Values must be 2 characters long and start delimiters must all start with the same character. If a key is omitted, the value from the default syntax is used.


Top-level template variables are defined by the template's context type. You can use a dot (.) to access variable's attributes or methods. Reading from variables is subject to the usual borrowing policies. For example, {{ name }} will get the name field from the template context, while {{ user.name }} will get the name field of the user field from the template context.


Inside code blocks, you can also declare variables or assign values to variables. Assignments can't be imported by other templates.

Assignments use the let tag:

{% let name = user.name %}
{% let len = name.len() %}

{% let val -%}
{% if len == 0 -%}
  {% let val = "foo" -%}
{% else -%}
  {% let val = name -%}
{% endif -%}
{{ val }}


Values such as those obtained from variables can be post-processed using filters. Filters are applied to values using the pipe symbol (|) and may have optional extra arguments in parentheses. Filters can be chained, in which case the output from one filter is passed to the next.

For example, {{ "{:?}"|format(name|escape) }} will escape HTML characters from the value obtained by accessing the name field, and print the resulting string as a Rust literal.

The built-in filters are documented as part of the filters module documentation.

To define your own filters, simply have a module named filters in scope of the context deriving a Template impl. Any filter names that are not part of the built-in filters will be referenced through the filters:: prefix.

Whitespace control

Askama considers all tabs, spaces, newlines and carriage returns to be whitespace. By default, it preserves all whitespace in template code, except that a single trailing newline character is suppressed. However, whitespace before and after expression and block delimiters can be suppressed by writing a minus sign directly following a start delimiter or leading into an end delimiter.

Here is an example:

{% if foo %}
  {{- bar -}}
{% else if -%}
{%- endif %}

This discards all whitespace inside the if/else block. If a literal (any part of the template not surrounded by {% %} or {{ }}) includes only whitespace, whitespace suppression on either side will completely suppress that literal content.

Template inheritance

Template inheritance allows you to build a base template with common elements that can be shared by all inheriting templates. A base template defines blocks that child templates can override.

Base template

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <title>{% block title %}{{ title }} - My Site{% endblock %}</title>
    {% block head %}{% endblock %}
    <div id="content">
      {% block content %}{% endblock %}

The block tags define three blocks that can be filled in by child templates. The base template defines a default version of the block. A base template must define one or more blocks in order to enable inheritance. Blocks can only be specified at the top level of a template or inside other blocks, not inside if/else branches or in for-loop bodies.

Child template

Here's an example child template:

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Index{% endblock %}

{% block head %}
{% endblock %}

{% block content %}
  <p>Hello, world!</p>
{% endblock %}

The extends tag tells the code generator that this template inherits from another template. It will search for the base template relative to itself before looking relative to the template base directory. It will render the top-level content from the base template, and substitute blocks from the base template with those from the child template. Inside a block in a child template, the super() macro can be called to render the parent block's contents.

HTML escaping

Askama by default escapes variables if it thinks it is rendering HTML content. It infers the escaping context from the extension of template filenames, escaping by default if the extension is one of html, htm, or xml. When specifying a template as source in an attribute, the ext attribute parameter must be used to specify a type. Additionally, you can specify an escape mode explicitly for your template by setting the escape attribute parameter value (to none or html).

Askama escapes <, >, &, ", ', \ and /, according to the OWASP escaping recommendations. Use the safe filter to prevent escaping for a single expression, or the escape (or e) filter to escape a single expression in an unescaped context.

Control structures


Loop over each item in an iterator. For example:

{% for user in users %}
  <li>{{ user.name|e }}</li>
{% endfor %}

Inside for-loop blocks, some useful variables are accessible:

  • loop.index: current loop iteration (starting from 1)
  • loop.index0: current loop iteration (starting from 0)
  • loop.first: whether this is the first iteration of the loop
  • loop.last: whether this is the last iteration of the loop


The if statement is used as you might expect:

{% if users.len() == 0 %}
  No users
{% else if users.len() == 1 %}
  1 user
{% else %}
  {{ users.len() }} users
{% endif %}


In order to deal with Rust enums in a type-safe way, templates support match blocks from version 0.6. Here is a simple example showing how to expand an Option:

{% match item %}
  {% when Some with ("foo") %}
    Found literal foo
  {% when Some with (val) %}
    Found {{ val }}
  {% when None %}
{% endmatch %}

That is, a match block can optionally contain some whitespace (but no other literal content), followed by a number of when blocks and and an optional else block. Each when block must name a list of matches ((val)), optionally introduced with a variant name. The else block is equivalent to matching on _ (matching anything).


The include statement lets you split large or repetitive blocks into separate template files. Included templates get full access to the context in which they're used, including local variables like those from loops:

{% for i in iter %}
  {% include "item.html" %}
{% endfor %}
* Item: {{ i }}

The path to include must be a string literal, so that it is known at compile time. Askama will try to find the specified template relative to the including template's path before falling back to the absolute template path. Use include within the branches of an if/else block to use includes more dynamically.


Askama supports string literals ("foo") and integer literals (1). It supports almost all binary operators that Rust supports, including arithmetic, comparison and logic operators. The parser applies the same precedence order as the Rust compiler. Expressions can be grouped using parentheses. The HTML special characters &, < and > will be replaced with their character entities unless the escape mode is disabled for a template. Methods can be called on variables that are in scope, including self.

Warning: if the result of an expression (a {{ }} block) is equivalent to self, this can result in a stack overflow from infinite recursion. This is because the Display implementation for that expression will in turn evaluate the expression and yield self again.


Askama supports block comments delimited by {# and #}.

Optional functionality

Rocket integration

Enabling the with-rocket feature appends an implementation of Rocket's Responder trait for each template type. This makes it easy to trivially return a value of that type in a Rocket handler. See the example from the Askama test suite for more on how to integrate.

In case a run-time error occurs during templating, a 500 Internal Server Error Status value will be returned, so that this can be further handled by your error catcher.

Iron integration

Enabling the with-iron feature appends an implementation of Iron's Modifier<Response> trait for each template type. This makes it easy to trivially return a value of that type in an Iron handler. See the example from the Askama test suite for more on how to integrate.

Note that Askama's generated Modifier<Response> implementation currently unwraps any run-time errors from the template. If you have a better suggestion, please file an issue.

Actix-web integration

Enabling the with-actix-web feature appends an implementation of Actix-web's Responder trait for each template type. This makes it easy to return a value of that type in an Actix-web handler.

Gotham integration

Enabling the with-gotham feature appends an implementation of Gotham's IntoResponse trait for each template type. This makes it easy to return a value of that type in a Gotham handler.

In case of a run-time error occurring during templating, the response will be of the same signature, with a status code of 500 Internal Server Error, mime */*, and an empty Body. This preserves the response chain if any custom error handling needs to occur.

The json filter

Enabling the serde-json filter will enable the use of the json filter. This will output formatted JSON for any value that implements the required Serialize trait.



Module for built-in filter functions






askama error type



Main Template trait; implementations are generally derived



Old build script helper to rebuild crates if contained templates have changed

Type Definitions