Crate anchor_lang[][src]

Expand description

Anchor ⚓ is a framework for Solana’s Sealevel runtime providing several convenient developer tools.

  • Rust eDSL for writing safe, secure, and high level Solana programs
  • IDL specification
  • TypeScript package for generating clients from IDL
  • CLI and workspace management for developing complete applications

If you’re familiar with developing in Ethereum’s Solidity, Truffle, web3.js or Parity’s Ink!, then the experience will be familiar. Although the syntax and semantics are targeted at Solana, the high level workflow of writing RPC request handlers, emitting an IDL, and generating clients from IDL is the same.

For detailed tutorials and examples on how to use Anchor, see the guided tutorials or examples in the GitHub repository.

Presented here are the Rust primitives for building on Solana.



The prelude contains all commonly used components of the crate. All programs should include it via anchor_lang::prelude::*;.


Defines the program’s ID. This should be used at the root of all Anchor based programs.

Creates an event that can be subscribed to by clients. Calling this method will internally borsh serialize the event, base64 encode the bytes, and then add a msg! log to the transaction.

Ensures a condition is true, otherwise returns the given error. Use this with a custom error type.


Account container that checks ownership on deserialization.

Provides non-argument inputs to the program.

Context specifying non-argument inputs for cross-program-invocations.

Account loader facilitating on demand zero copy deserialization. Note that using accounts in this way is distinctly different from using, for example, the ProgramAccount. Namely, one must call load, load_mut, or load_init, before reading or writing to the account. For more details on zero-copy-deserialization, see the account attribute.

Account container that checks ownership on deserialization.

Type validating that the account signed the transaction. No other ownership or type checks are done. If this is used, one should not try to access the underlying account data.

Container for sysvars.

Explicit wrapper for AccountInfo types.


A data structure that can be deserialized and stored into account storage, i.e. an AccountInfo’s mutable data slice.

A data structure that can be serialized and stored into account storage, i.e. an AccountInfo’s mutable data slice.

A data structure of validated accounts that can be deserialized from the input to a Solana program. Implementations of this trait should perform any and all requisite constraint checks on accounts to ensure the accounts maintain any invariants required for the program to run securely. In most cases, it’s recommended to use the Accounts derive macro to implement this trait.

The close procedure to initiate garabage collection of an account, allowing one to retrieve the rent exemption.

The exit procedure for an account. Any cleanup or persistence to storage should be done here.

Borsh is the default serialization format for instructions and accounts.

Borsh is the default serialization format for instructions and accounts.

Bump seed for program derived addresses.

8 byte unique identifier for a type.

An event that can be emitted via a Solana log.

Defines the id of a program.

Calculates the data for an instruction invocation, where the data is Sha256(<namespace>::<method_name>)[..8] || BorshSerialize(args). args is a borsh serialized struct of named fields for each argument given to an instruction.

Defines the Pubkey of an account.

Defines an address expected to own an account.

Transformation to an AccountInfo struct.

Transformation to AccountInfo structs.

Transformation to AccountMeta structs.

An account data structure capable of zero copy deserialization.

Attribute Macros

Executes the given access control method before running the decorated instruction handler. Any method in scope of the attribute can be invoked with any arguments from the associated instruction handler.

A data structure representing a Solana account, implementing various traits:

Generates Error and type Result<T> = Result<T, Error> types to be used as return types from Anchor instruction handlers. Importantly, the attribute implements From on the ErrorCode to support converting from the user defined error enum into the generated Error.

The event attribute allows a struct to be used with emit! so that programs can log significant events in their programs that clients can subscribe to. Currently, this macro is for structs only.

The #[interface] attribute allows one to define an external program dependency, without having any knowledge about the program, other than the fact that it implements the given trait.

The #[program] attribute defines the module containing all instruction handlers defining all entries into a Solana program.

The #[state] attribute defines the program’s state struct, i.e., the program’s global account singleton giving the program the illusion of state.

A data structure that can be used as an internal field for a zero copy deserialized account, i.e., a struct marked with #[account(zero_copy)].

Derive Macros

Implements an Accounts deserializer on the given struct, applying any constraints specified via inert #[account(..)] attributes upon deserialization.

Borsh is the default serialization format for instructions and accounts.

Borsh is the default serialization format for instructions and accounts.